Unit 2 Theoretical Perspectives
Something to ponder upon:
Why do we need to learn about theories in personality development? How can we use theories and able to relate it to ourselves?
Definition Of Theory Different Theoretical Perspectives: A. Psychodynamic Perspective ▪ Psychoanalytic Approach ▪ Psychosocial Approach
B. Behavioral Perspective
▪ Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning ▪ Skinner’s Operant Conditioning ▪ Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
C. Cognitive Perspective
▪ Cognitive Development Theory (Jean Piaget)
D. Humanistic Perspective
▪ Roger’s Person Centered Therapy ▪ Maslow’s Theory Of Self Actualization
Discuss the different types of theories Discuss the importance of theories in developing one’s personality
A theory is an unproved speculation about reality A theory consists of a set of terms and principle constructed or applied by the theorist, which are referred to as constructs (interrelated/consistent). Theories are explanations and predictions that provide a framework for understanding relationships. Theory of personality is an “educated guess” about important aspects of human behavior, which may be based on clinical observation or empirical research (or both).
Alternate theories exist because the very nature of theory allows the theorist to make speculation from a particular point of view. All theories are reflection of their developers’ personal backgrounds, childhood experiences, philosophy of life, interpersonal relationships and unique manner of looking at world.
1- Psychodynamic Perspective 2- Behavioural Perspective 3- Cognitive Perspective 4- Humanistic Perspective
Based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious/inner forces, memories, and conflicts (over which a person has little control or awareness)
• Psychoanalysis theory is the earliest approach to
• Unconscious is the part of the personality about which a
the formal study of personality. Psychoanalysis emphasized on unconscious forces, biologically based drives of sex and aggression and unavoidable conflicts in early childhood act to determine personality and behavior.
person is unaware; it is responsible for much of our everyday behavior. Originally Personality concept has divided into three levels: The Conscious The Preconscious The Unconscious The structure of personality has 3 components: The Id The Ego The Superego
conscious corresponds to its ordinary everyday meaning. It includes all the sensations and experiences of which we are aware at any given moment. preconscious level between the conscious and unconscious. This is storehouse of memories, perceptions and thoughts of which we are not aware at the moment but that we can easily summon into consciousness. unconscious The larger and invisible portion. It contains the major driving power behind all behaviors and is the respiratory of forces we cannot see or control.
The aspect of personality allied with the instincts; the source of psychic energy, the id operates according to the pleasure principle. Primary process of thinking Raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth Represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, irrational impulses Has no awareness of reality
The rational and reasonable aspect of personality, responsible for directing and controlling the instincts according to the reality principle. Acts as a buffer between the world and the primitive id
The moral aspect of personality; the internalization of parental and societal values and standards. Evaluates right from wrong Develops about age 5 or 6 Learned from parents, teachers, and significant other
Psychosexual Development Theory Series of stages that children pass through Pleasure or gratification is focused particular biological function or body part and its depends on the stimulation of corresponding areas of the body Each developmental...