CHAPTER 34: Infection Prevention and Control
* Principles for infection control for the nurse and patient during care
NATURE OF INFECTION:
* Pathogen-infectious agents
* Colonization- present or invaded host, grows and multiplies but does not cause infection * Communicable disease- transmitted from one person to the other
CHAIN OF INFECTION:
a. Agent- residents for transient flora
i. To cause disease depends on:
1. Does (number of organisms)
2. Virulence (ability to survive)
3. Ability to enter and survive
4. Host resistance
b. Reservoir- source for pathogen growth but it may or may not survive ii. Needed ideal food source, aerobic, anaerobic, ideal amount of water, ideal temperature, ideal pH, ideal exposure to light c. Portal of Exit- any breaks in the skin and leave his number and; drainage is a potential portal sect that; cough or sneeze in; urine; G.I. tract (if normal flora in one area moves to another area; or eliminations); reproductive tract (semen or vaginal secretions); blood d. Mode of transmission- table 34 – 2, page 645
iii. Contact-direct, indirect, droplets
iv. Airborne- small droplets suspended in air
v. Vehicles- contaminated items, water, drugs, blood, who did vi. Vector- external and internal mechanical transfers (i.e. flies, mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, parasites) e. portal of entry-organisms enter the body through the same routes used for exiting f. susceptible hosts-a degree of resistance to the pathogen; infection does not develop until individuals immune is weakend and/or dose increases
THE INFECTIOUS PROCESS:
Nurse is responsible for properly administered antibiotics, monitoring the response to drug therapy, and hygiene in standard precautions.
Course of infection by stage- box 34–1, page 646
i. incubation period-entrance of pathogen
j. Prodromal State- nonspecific signs and symptoms; feeling “off” k. Illness stage- Signs and symptoms are specific to a type of infection l. Convalescence- getting better, recovering; still contagious but depends on pathogen
Defense against infection:
1. Inflammatory response-neutralizes pathogens and repair body cells, non-specific defenses; vascular reaction that delivers fluids, blood products, and nutrients in the area of injury; i. vascular and cellular response- vasodilation delivers blood and white blood cells to injured tissue, serum proteins increase vasodilation. 1.
Neutrophils are the first line of defense
Phagocytosis is the sorption of bacteria, this is where neutrophils and monocytes eat the particles 3.
Then leukocytosis levels increase with the presence of an infection ii. Exudate – formed from cells or blood vessels (pus or serum); fibrinogen forms a mesh like matrix 4. Serous – clear like plasma
5. Sanguineous- it contains red blood cells
6. Purulent- contains WBC and bacteria
iii. Tissue repair- damage cells are replaced with healthy cells; if inflammation is chronic, granulation tissue is not as strong as tissue collagen and assumes the form of scar tissue. a.
SIGNS-swelling, redness, heat, pain, tenderness, loss of function b.
SYSTEMIC-fever (caused by release of pyrogens from bacteria cells), leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, enlarged lymph node, or in failureit c.
7. Mechanical agents- examples are trauma, extreme temps, radiation 8. Chemical Agents- irritants like poisons and gastric acid 9. Microorganisms
2. Normal flora- does not cause disease but helps fight infection 3. Body’s Normal Defense System- table 34 – 3, page 647 iv. Skin-mechanical barrier
v. Mouth-mechanical barrier, washes away particles, contained inhibitors vi. Eye- tears and blinking;...
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