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Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a lack of a distinct nucleus, whereas prokaryotic cells have intracellular compartments bordered by membranes and a well-defined nucleus.
Lipids and proteins are the major components of the plasma membrane.
Lysosomes remain fully active by maintaining an acid pH created by pumping hydrogen ions into their interiors.
The chief function of ribosomes is to provide sites for lipid synthesis.
If cells are deprived of communication from extracellular chemical messengers, most cells experience apoptosis.
Non-dividing cells, such as myocardial fibers, are capable of hypertrophy, but not hyperplasia.
Dysplasia is a common type of normal cellular adaptation.
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia rarely occur together.
Noise, illumination, and prolonged vibrations can cause cellular injury.
Irreversible damage to the myocardium can be detected by elevation in the contractile protein called troponin, which is released from the myocardial muscle.
Chemical injuries initiate biochemical reactions that damage cell membrane by decreasing the permeability of the plasma membrane.
Aging is the result of a genetically controlled development program or built-in self-destructive processes.
Chromosome abnormalities are the leading cause of mental retardation and miscarriages.
The main function of natural killers cells is recognition and elimination of bacteria.
The inflammatory response is the body’s first line of defense.
Neutrophils are involved in activation of the adaptive immune system.
Several bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are resistant to killing by granulocytes and can survive inside macrophages.
Resolution is best defined as the restoration of original...
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