* Please complete Exercise 1 BEFORE your first lecture
Paraphrasing Skills 1 – Summary
Cambridge Markers’ Comments for A-level 2011: “Candidates amply demonstrated their familiarity with the requirements of an effective summary: they selected the relevant points, rephrased them and linked them together coherently. The word limit of 120 words was almost uniformly adhered to (though one candidate did use 232 words) and copying just the one word or phrase of the text language was hardly seen at all.”
1. THE 4-STEP MODEL
▪ Step 1 - Analyse: Read the instructions carefully to know the requirements of the question. Some important information you need to know include the ____________________ required, the marks allocated and ______________________ from. The worst crime is to write a summary that does not answer the question.
➢ Exercise 1: Underline the key requirements of the following A-level questions. a) 1999: Write a full and concise account of the various problems and disadvantages that sponsorship and the injection of large sums of money have brought with them. Write your summary in about 150 words, using your own words as far as possible. 
b) 2000: Write a summary of what the author believes has contributed to the uncertainty of the modem age. Write about 150 words, using your own words as far as possible. Select the material for your summary from paragraphs 2 to 8, lines 11-77. 
c) 2001: Write a summary of what the author has to say about the nature and habits of teenagers and their relationships with their parents and peers. Use the material from paragraphs 2 to 5. You should write between 150 and 170 words. Use your own words as far as possible. 
d) 2003: Summarise the author’s reasons for believing that animals have no rights, and his account of the ‘natural’ relationship of humans and animals. Using material from paragraphs 2 and 5, write your summary in no more than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as possible. 
e) 2005: In paragraph 5 the author draws two conclusions about aggression. Using material from the first four paragraphs of the passage (lines 1-51), summarise the case the author makes to justify these conclusions. Write your summary in no more than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as possible. 
f) 2011 summary question (refer to 2011 A-level paper)
▪ Step 2- Selection
➢ Search for the required information and highlight them. Only highlight what is necessary. Highlight important _______________ rather than full sentences ➢ Next, ________________ the points as you identify them in the passage so that you will know if you have enough points ➢ A quick way to check that you have everything is to read only your underlined phrases. Do they give you a complete understanding of the whole text or do they only give you examples and additional information? ➢ Remember! Do not include these points:
• I : Irrelevant information
• R: Repetitive information
• E: Examples / Illustrations or unnecessary supporting ideas & facts ➢ Read carefully
• Topic sentences and supporting statements • Use of _______________________
• Conjunctions (and, but, therefore)
• Signposts / Contextual clues
➢ Exercise 2: Read the A-level 2011 passage and highlight the relevant points. Circle out signposts, conjunctions or punctuation that can help you answer the question.
▪ Step 3 – Arrange: Remember to order the information according to the summary requirements. ➢ Take for example this summary question: “The author sees benefits but also dangers and limitations in the pursuit of science. Using your own words as far as...
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