Outline Chapter 12

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  • Topic: Temperance movement, Lyman Beecher, American Temperance Society
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Outline 12.1 pp 329-341
I. The Rise of Evangelicalism
i. Separation of Church and State
ii. Revivalism – extending religious values and building up church membership iii. Great Awakening – shows the wonders evangelicalism can accomplish iv. Spiritual renewals

v. Jacksonian politicians and evangelists assumed that individuals were capable of self-direction and self-improvement. 1. Jacksonians idealized common folk, saw no danger to them as long as they pursued their worldy interests 2. Evangelists believed that common people need to be redeemed or uplifted, committed more than just self-interest a. The Second Great Awakening: The Frontier Phase

vi. Second Great Awakening – a series of evangelical Protestant revivals that swept over America in the early 19th century. Began in southern frontier vii. Highly emotional camp meetings became prevalent in the south viii. Rowdies and scoffers who drank whiskey also came ix. Provided as an emotional outlet for rural people whose everyday lives were lonely and tedious x. Promoted a sense of community and self-discipline b. The Second Great Awakening in the North

xi. Northern Evangelists – Congregationalists and Presbyterians, influenced by puritan traditions xii. Societies were formed made devoted to redemption of the human race xiii. In New England, reform movement began as an effort to defend Calvinism against liberal views. xiv. Reverend Timothy Dwight fought back Deism by preaching to Yale. xv. Calvinism stressed on original sin and predestination. xvi. Nathaniel Taylor – Theologian of neo-Calvinism, also held forth at Yale (Dwight’s Pupil) xvii. Congregational ministers reshaped Puritanism to appeal to people who were also optimistic about humans xviii. Lyman Beecher

3. Lyman Beecher – first practitioner of new evangelical Calvinism (Dwight’s Pupil) 4. Beecher promoted a series of revivals in churches and induced thousands to acknowledge their sinfulness and surrender to God 5. Beecher confronted the new and radical form of revivalism by Charles G. Finney. 6. New Yorkers were people who left behind their village communities and churches but not their puritan consciences. xix. Charles G. Finney

7. Charles G. Finney departed from Calvinist doctrines; sermons: “Sinners Bound to Change Their Own Hearts”. He appealed to emotion rather than reason. Said that Christians could totally be free from sin 8. Conducted successful rivals in towns and cities of NY 9. Finney’s Approach to theology: meetings that lasted all night or several days in a row, placing an “anxious bench” in front of the congregation, encouraging women to pray publicly for the souls of male relatives 10. Resulted in people who were listening to Finney’s lectures to fall to the floor in dramatic excitement xx. Lyman Beecher and other evangelicals were annoyed by Finney’s ways and the emotion that went with it. xxi. They were also upset because he violated long-standing Christian tradition by allowing women to proud aloud in the church. xxii. Beecher and Finney held a meeting and failed to reach agreement on this and other issues. xxiii. However, Finney was leaving strong and active churches behind him. c. From Revivalism to Reform

xxiv. Northern evangelicalism inspired social reform xxv. Converts of northern revivalism haven’t had left their morals, but were just people seeking to adjust to the market revolution in ways that wouldn’t violate their traditional moral and social values. xxvi. Reverend Samuel John Mills organized the American Bible Society xxvii. American Tract Society – distributed and published bibles too...
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