October 22, 2011
Chapter 9 Outline
The Confederation and the Constitution
I. The Pursuit of Equality
A. Fight of separation of church and state with the Congregational Church, and the Anglican Church. 1. The Anglican Church struggled for divorce between religion and government. 2. Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers won a complete victory with the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. B. The egalitarian sentiments challenged the institution of slavery. 1. Several northern states either abolished slavery outright or provided for the gradual emancipation of blacks. 2. No states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery. 3. In North and South, the law of discriminated harshly against freed blacks and slaves alike. 4. Emancipated African Americans could be barred from purchasing property, holding certain jobs, and educating their children. They can’t have interracial marriage. C. Women’s Role
1. Some women served in the military, and could vote. 2. Most of the women in the Revolutionary era still did traditional women’s work. 3. Education for women expanded, in the expectation that educated wifes, and mothers could better cultivate the virtues demanded by the Republic in the husbands, daughters, and sons. II. Constitution Making in the States
A. Continental Congress wanted the colonies to draft new constitutions 1. The sovereignty of these new states, according to the theory of republicanism, would rest on the authority of the people. B.
1. The documents Americans drafted were contracts that defined the powers of government, as did the old charters. 2. As written documents the state constitutions were intended to represent a fundamental law, superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation. Most of these included bills of rights. Most required annual elections or legislators. They created weak executive and judicial branches. C. State Capitals
3. The new states legislature’s influence was powerfully felt in their several successful movements to relocate state capitals from the haughty eastern seaports into the less pretentious interior. 4. In the Revolutionary Era, the capitals of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were all moved westward. 5. These geographical shifts portended political shifts that deeply discomfited many more conservative Americans. III. Economic Crosscurrents
A. Economic drawbacks
1. American ships were barred from Britain and British West Indies harbors. 2. Fisheries were disrupted, and bounties for ships’ stores had ended. B. New Commercial Outlets
1. Americans could trade freely with foreign nations. 2. Enterprising Yankee shippers ventured profitably into the Baltic and China Seas. C. War
1. War had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering, with profits for some as indecently high as 300 percent. 2. State government borrowed more during the war than they can afford to repay. 3. Runaway inflations had been ruinous to many citizens, and congress had failed in its feeble attempts to curb economic laws. IV. A Shaky Start Toward Union
A. Disruptive forces stalked the land
1. The departure of the conservative Tory elements left the political system inclined towards experimentation and innovation. B. The thirteen states were alike in governmental structure and functioned under similar constitutions. 1. Americans enjoyed a rich political inheritance, derived partly...
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