Nutrition Study Guide Notes for Chapter 1

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I recommend that you find and write down the answers to the questions in this outline and make notes to yourself before taking the exam. Email any questions you have about finding the answers at least 2 days before you take the exam.

Exam 1

Chapter 1 

Page 5
1. List the foods and food types known as functional foods. These are in the section, Nutrition and Health Benefits. FF-foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions; sometimes called designer foods or nutraceuticals. Foods: Whole foods

Tomatoes and oatmeal

Modified foods
Foods that have been modified by lowering fat content.

Fortified foods
Adding nutrients or phytochemicals that provide health benefits such as adding calcium to orange juice. Margarine made with a plant sterol that lowers blood cholesterol. Phytomchemicals-nonnutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body.

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2.       In the left margin, define nutrients. Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues. Nutrients may also reduce the risks of some diseases.  

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3.       “Minerals and water are inorganic nutrients—which means they do not contain carbon.” 4.       “The other four classes of nutrients ( carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins ) are more complex. In addition to hydrogen and oxygen, they all contain carbon, an element found in all living things. They are therefore called organic compounds (meaning, literally, ‘alive’).” 5.       Which of the organic nutrients in number 4 above does not yield energy? Vitamins. 6.       In the right margin, define macronutrient and micronutrient. Macronutrient-Carbohydrates, fat and protein are sometimes called macronutrients because the body requires them in relatively large amounts ( many grams daily) Micronutrient-Vitamins and minerals required only in small amounts (milligrams or micrograms daily). 1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie (kcal)

7.       In the right margin: “One kilocalorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1o C.” 8.       In the right margin, what are the three energy-yielding nutrients? Carbohydrate, fat, and protein.  Page 8

9.       In the HOW TO Box: “1 kg = 2.2 pounds (lb).” 10.   Define energy density. A measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories per gram). The amount of energy a food provides depends on how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein it contains.  Page 9

11.   In TABLE 1-2, list the energy densities of fat, alcohol, protein, and carbohydrate (kilocalories per gram). Fat – 9 kcal/g; Alcohol – 7 kcal/g; Protein – 4 kcal/g; Carbohydrate – 4 kcal/g Page 10

12.   “The vitamins are also organic, but they do not provide energy.” Vitamins facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein and participate in numerous other activities. 13.   “The strategies of cooking vegetables at moderate temperatures, using small amounts of water, and for short times all help to preserve the vitamins.”  Pages 12

14.   In a research study, which group receives the treatment—the experimental group or the control group. The Experimental Group

15.   In a research study, which group receives the placebo—the experimental group or the control group. The Control Group

16.   “Randomization helps to ensure that results reflect the treatment and not factors that might influence the grouping of subjects.” 17.   “Importantly, the two groups of people must be similar and must have the same track record with respect to colds to rule out the possibility that observed differences in the rate, severity, or duration of colds might have occurred anyway. If, for example, the...
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