Nutrition

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Carbohydrates

Glucose simplest sugar
found primary in plan based foods

Monst desirable form of energy

Body always wants to use most absorbable easiest to use
Eventually some systemsbreakdown

Veggies are much easier to digest

If body consumes 500g of carbs burning same as consume dont gain weight

Body will use some but leftivers become fat
Have fat storage
Body can only store so much....via gycogen

Have to eat healthy carbohydrates

Photosynthesis
Plants / leaves stored carbohydrates. -glucose stored as startch

Good carbs vs bd carbs
Bad have a lot of starchbut no real nutrition
Anything in excess. Stored in the form of fat

Glucose in plants starch
In animals glycogen

In tge end in order tobe bsorbed in body it must be in form of glucse

Glucagon and insulin control blood sugar
are the hormones that control blood sugar - in respect to diabetes Glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen into glucose when blood stream sugar lvl gets low

Glucagon released by pancreas
Glycogen broken down into glucose
It is from the muscles and liver
Glycogen in liver isbroken down

Glyconeogensis
Creation of glucose
Glycogon must be released for glyconeogenisis to occur

Simple vs complex carbs
Good give nutrition give vitaminsvnd minerals
Bad give only energy anda spike in blood sugar

Bad are mono- and di-sacarides
Maltose glucose+glucose
Sucrose glucose+ fructose
Lactose glucose+ galactose
( all components are monosaccarides)

With fruits you do get some good
Getsome fiber nd nutrients

1 cookie takes 20 minutes to work it off

Complex carbs

Polysaccarides
Long chains linked tpgether

Complex
Starch
Storage in plants
Amylose straightchains of glucose unit
Amylopectin branches out nota single chain
glycogen in animals
Fiber

Amylopectin h a s more exposure to the amylase

Fiber fermentation? Happens in large intestine

Ie :Cellulose hemicellulose foundin plants stalks
Lignins pectin

Potatoes are used as. Filler
But outside has fiber

Dietaryfiber is outside of apple
Functional fibers metamucil etc
Should get fiber from foods ntaurally

Solluble fiber absorbs water nd becomes a gel and ferments
Moves slowly
Pectin in veggies. betaglucan in oats. and gumsin legums. psyllium

Insolluble goesright through
cellulose hemicellulose lignins

Seeds re insolluble. Same as corn

Inside ofapple soluble
Out side insolluble

Gylcogen. Branched glucose similar to Amylopectin
Stored in liver and muscle cells
Only limited amounts
important source of glucose for blood

Nutrition in real world
Grains important staple and source of nutrition
Three edible parts bran endosperm germ
Refined grins. milling removes bran and germ
Some votamin b vitamins iron phytochemicals and dietary fiber lost as a result Ie whet or white bread, white rice

Enriched grains. Folic acid , thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron added to restored some of lost nutrition Whole grains food containsalll three parts
Brown rice, oatmeal, whole wheat bread

Want to eat entire oat/grain

Multigrins are good
Wheat bread not a good choice

Flour.
Should use very little in cooking

Digesting meal of pasta (starch) Milk (lactose) and cherries(sucrose and fiber) Digest carbs in mouth and instestines
Saliva contains amylase enzyme
Starts breaking down amylose amylopectin in pasta into smaller starch units and maltose

Carbohydrate absorbtion
Break down polysaccarides into mono saccarides

Takes 1to 4 hourto be completelybroken down

Teeth start digestion salivary amylase starts to hydrolyze carbs In stomach
Gstric juices. inactivate amylase
Chyme into duodeum

Fiber passes thru small intestines and promotes healthy digestive tract

10\16\12

Carbohydrates cont

Added sugars
naturally occurring sugars found in fruits and dairy
Usually more nutrient defense, provide...
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