October 29, 2012 session
Infection Control- chapter 28
Personal protective equipment and indication for use
Gowns: prevent soiling clothing during contact with patient
Masks: should be worn when you anticipate splash or spray of blood or body fluid and satisfy droplet/airborne precautions. Protective eyewear: should be worn for procedures that generate splashes or splatters Gloves: prevent the transmission of pathogens by direct/indirect contact. This equipment protects you from waste materials such as wounds, blood, stool, and urine.
Indwelling urinary catheters - causes of risk for infections An indwelling urinary catheter obstructs the normal flushing action of urine flow. The presence of a catheter in the urethra breaches the natural defenses of the body. Reflux of microorganisms up the catheter lumen from the drainage bag or backflow of urine in the tubing increases the risk of infection.
Surgical asepsis uses verse medical asepsis
Surgical asepsis is used during procedures that require intentional perforation of patient’s skin, when skin’s integrity is broken, or during procedures that involve insertion of catheters. * Sterile objects remains sterile only when touched by another sterile object * Place only sterile objects on sterile field
* Sterile object/field out of the range of vision or held below waist is contaminated * Sterile object/field becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air. * When sterile surface comes in contact with a wet, contaminated surface, the sterile object/field becomes contaminated by capillary action * Sterile object becomes contaminated if gravity causes contaminated fluid to flow over the objects surface * The edges of sterile field/container are considered to be contaminated. Medical asepsis, or clean technique, includes procedures for reducing the number of organisms present and preventing the transfer of organisms. Hand hygiene, barrier techniques, and routine environmental cleaning are examples of medical asepsis.
Vital Signs- chapter 29
Blood pressure sites
Upper arm and lower extremity
Sites to take a temperature
Oral, tympanic membrane, rectal, axilla, skin, temporal artery
Nursing intervention when assessing bradycardia radial pulse Can cause pulse deficit. To assess a pulse deficit 2 nurses are needed to assess radial and apical pulse simultaneously and compare rates. The difference between apical and radial pulse is the pulse deficit. Assess the ability of the heart to meet the demands of body tissue for nutrients by palpation a peripheral pulse or using a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds (apical rate)
Temporal, carotid, apical, brachial, radial, ulnar, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, Dorsalis pedis
Critical Thinking- chapter 15
Examples of application of critical thinking (you may have to scan the chapter, no specific section to apply to the question) Know what would be considered critical thinking * Critical thinking involves recognizing that an issue exists, analyzing information about the issue, evaluating information, and making conclusions. * Critical thinking is a continuous process characterized by open-mindedness, continual inquiry, and perseverance. 1. Truth seeking: seek the truth meaning of a situation.
2. Open-mindedness: be tolerant of different views and one’s own prejudices. 3. Analyticity: anticipate possible results or consequences. 4. Systematicity: be organized.
5. Self-confidence: trust in your own reasoning processes. 6. Inquisitiveness: be eager to acquire new knowledge and value leaning. 7. Maturity: reflect on your own judgments.
Cognitive processes to critical thinking competencies.
* Scientific method: systemic, ordered approach to gathering data and solving problems. * Problem solving: obtain information and then use the information plus what you already know to find a solution. *...