Notes on the Plant Kingdom

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Plant Kingdom
* Bryophyta
* Non-vascular (no xylem or phloem)
* Reliance on diffusion and osmosis
* Ergo, size restriction to damp areas
* Reproduce via haploid spores
* No roots; rhizoids
* No true stems
* Possible earliest colonists of land.
* Moss, liverworts, hornworts
* Filicinophyta
* Seedless (male gamete meets female gametes)
* Vascular (xylem carry water and phloem carry nutrients) * Ferns, club mosses, horsetails
* Coniferophyta (gymnosperm)
* “Naked seed” Greek
* Refers to ovules not being surrounded by an ovary wall. * Therefore, necessity of cones
* Seeds are non-motile and need wind for transport
* Vascular
* Cycad, ginkgo, pine
* Angiospermophyta
* Most successful plants today
* Vascular
* Seeds coated w/ ovary wall surrounding ovule
* Sexual reproduction via flower formation, then seeds within fruit * Includes woody and herbaceous plants
* Sunflowers, roses, cherry trees
* Dicotyledons
* Two cotyledons
* Multiples of four or five floral parts
* Netlike array of leaf veins
* 3 pores or furrows in pollen grain
* Vascular bundles arrayed as a ring in stem
* Tap roots
* Monocotyledons
* One cotyledon
* Multiples of three
* Parallel array of leaf veins
* One pore or furrow in pollen grain
* Vascular bundles distributed around tissue of stem * Fibrous roots
* Leaf structure
* Very thin for max surface area for photosynthesis * Cuticle: Outermost layer that protects leaf from drying out * Epidermis: Next layer composed of multiple layers used to protect against water loss, regulate gas exchange, and secrete metabolic compounds * Mesophyll: Tissue that comprises most of the interior of the leaf. Divided into palisade and spongy layer * Palisade: Upper layer consisted of tightly packed, vertically elongated cells that contain many more chloroplasts than spongy cells; used for light absorption * Spongy: More rounded and not as tightly packed and have large air spaces between them; main function is for gas exchange. * Stomata: Small pores found mainly on underside of leaf * Used for gas exchange

* Surrounded by guard cells that swell and shrink in order to open and close. * Helps in water loss regulation
* Bulbs: Modified leaves for food storage (tulip)
* Stem tuber: Thickened rhizome or stolon used store nutrients (potato) * Storage root: Modified root used for food storage (carrot) * Tendril: Modified stem, leaf, or petiole used by climbing plants for attachment (ivy) * Meristems: Undifferentiated plant cells

* Apical: Primaries found in the growing tips of roots, shoots, and flower buds. Used in vertical growth. * Lateral: Secondaries used in horizontal growth. Gives rise to wood in trees (tree rings) * Phototropism: Movement due to light. Caused by the hormone auxin that elongates plant cells. Auxin moves away due to presence of light * Xerophyta

* Thick cuticles to limit water loss
* Thick leaves/spines which reduce surface area and water loss * Extensive, deep root systems maximize water absorption * Reduced amount of stomata
* Short life cycles to coordinate with rainy season * CAM and C4 plants absorb carbon dioxide during night in order to reduce water loss through stomata; used for photosynthesis during the day when sunlight is available * Hydrophyta

* Have many air spaces in tissues in order to help them float * Leaves and stems are flexible due to water providing...
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