Notes Apush Chapter 16 a People and a Nation

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Chapter 16 - Reconstruction: An Unfinished Revolution, 1865-1877 I. Introduction
The end of the Civil War brought profound changes to the United States. Reconstruction changed some things, but it did little regarding social equality and political turmoil. In the end, the government established black suffrage, but this reform proved insufficient to remake the South or to guarantee human rights. II. Wartime Reconstruction

A. Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan
Lincoln planned for a swift and moderate Reconstruction process. Under his 10 Percent Plan, he proposed that as soon as 10 percent of the voting population in the 1860 election took an oath and established a government, it would be recognized. Replaced majority with loyal rule, promised pardons to ex-confeds B. Congress and the Wade-Davis Bill

Congress was not happy Lincoln didn’t consult them. Responding negatively to Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan, Thaddeus Stevens advocated a “conquered province” theory, the South waged war as a foreign nation, thus, they should be treated like one, and Charles Sumner advanced a “state suicide” theory. In July 1864, Congress passed the Wade-Davis bill by which the process of readmission to the Union was to be harsh and slow. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill. Wade-David Bill- To reenter the Union 1. A majority of white males had to participate in government 2. To vote or be a delegate in Constitutional conventions they had to take an ironclad (oath saying they never supported the confederacy) 3. All ranks above Lieutenant couldn’t become citizens of the United States C. Thirteenth Amendment and the Freedmen’s Bureau

Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment on January 31, 1865. On March 3, 1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands to aid southern refugees- provided food, medical services, schooling, and jobs for refugees. Petitions were started by women and the public, the amendment outlawed involuntary slavery and said the govn’t couldn’t change it The landscape was in ruins along with the economy, many families faced starvation III. The Meanings of Freedom

A. The Feel of Freedom
Many former slaves began to explore freedom by searching for family members or exercising their right of mobility. Others reacted more cautiously. Most settled as workers on their former farms or plantation but attempted to control the conditions of their labor. B. Reunion of African American Families

Relying on the black community in the South, thousands of former slaves began odysseys to find family members. Ads were put in the papers. C. Blacks’ Search for Independence
Many blacks tried to avoid contact with overbearing whites by abandoning their slave quarters and relocating their houses. Some even established all-black settlements. They wanted the sense of freedom D. African Americans’ Desire for Land

Next to freedom, blacks wanted land most of all. Since they could not secure solid support in the North, however, few obtained their dream of independence. Blacks were given land but President Johnson took it away and gave it back to the Whites. They wanted a secure promise the land would still be theirs after they cultivated it E. The Black Embrace of Education

Many African Americans eagerly sought an education. They paid $1-1.50 a month for education if needed. They really wanted to learn. Federal aid and northern charity helped start thousands of schools for freedmen in the South. Many black leaders were very well educated; they established many universities and colleges alongside the whites. F. Growth of Black Churches

In an effort to gain more independence from whites, African Americans established their own churches, which became the social center of their new freedom. Black establishments used to be hidden; now they could freely worship. The church was the wealthiest institution in Black life. G. Rise of the Sharecropping System

Blacks could not...
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