Development: systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception and death (temporary transitory changes are excluded) “Continutities” – ways in which we remain the same or continue to reflect our past 2 IMPORTANT PROCESSES UNDERLYING DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE
1. MATURATION – biological unfolding of the individual according to species-typical biological inheritance and an individual’s biological inheritance. 2. LEARNING – process through which our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Many of our abilities do not unfold as part of maturation. * Goals of developmentalists: DESCRIBE, EXPLAIN, and OPTIMIZE development.
Normative development – typical patterns of change
Ideographic development – individual variations in patterns of change (both are impt!!)
Chronological Overview of Human Development (look in book @ chart)
Holistic Perspective a unified view of the developmental process that emphasizes the important interrelationships among the physical, mental, social, and emotional aspects of human development. Development is not piecemeal…Each component affects the other. Plasticity capacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiences; a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by experience; children with bad social skills can be taught to act more socially acceptable
Theory – set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe and explain an existing set of observations Hypothesis – a theoretical prediction about some aspect of experience Reliability – the extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results, both over time (temporal stability) and across observers (interrater reliability) Validity – the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately reflects what the researchers intended to measure Self-Report Methodologies
structured interview/questionnaire (same Q’s/same order)
clinical methodinterview when participant’s response to one question determines what the next question will be.. (Jean Piaget) Observational Methodologies
Naturalistic observation (Limitations: some behaviors occur infrequently/are socially undesirable, many events happen at once so you don’t know what causes a certain behavior, presence of researcher) Observer Influence (minimize this by videotaping or spending time in location before collecting data) Time-sampling (procedure in which the investigator records the frequencies with which individuals display particular behaviors during time intervals of observation Structured observation (used to observe unusual/undesirable behaviors; investigator cues the behavior of interest and observes the response) * Case studies
Research method in which the investigator gathers extensive information about the life of an individual and then tests developmental hypotheses by analyzing the events of the person’s life history. Group case study
Limitations: Lack generalizability.
Ethnography – method in which the researcher seeks to understand the unique values, traditions and social processes of a culture by living with its members and observing Psychophysiological methods – measure the relationships between physiological processes and aspects of children’s physical, cognitive, social, or emotional behavior/development. (Heart rate…physiological response that is highly sensitive to one’s psychological experiences)
* Research designs
Correlational – indicates the strength of associations among variables; relationships may be systematically related…but aren’t necessarily causal. Correlation coefficient: strength and direction of relationship between variables Experimental – investigator introduces some change in the participant’s environment and measures the effect of that change on the participant’s behavior IV, DV, confounding variables, experimental control (allows for causation), random...