Module 1 Notes

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PSYCH100-Module 1: The Science of Psychology Notes

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Textbook pg 2-27

Psychology
* Scientific study on causes of behavior
Causal Event
* Event that causes another event to occur

Different Fields of Psychology
* Physiological Psychology
* Studies the physiological basis of behavior
* Mainly through the nervous system
* Learning
* Memory
* Sensory process
* Emotional behavior
* Motivation
* Sexual behavior
* Sleep
* Strongly connected in understanding drug use/addiction * Comparative Psychology
* Studies behaviors of organisms to understand adaptive/functional significance of behaviors and their relation to evolution * I.e. Inherited behavioral patterns
* Courting/mating
* Predation/aggression
* Defensive behaviors
* Parental behaviors
* Behavioral Analysis
* Studies effect of the environment on behavior
* Effects of consequences of behaviors on the behaviors themselves * Belief that the relationship between the behavior and some consequence event is an important cause of a behavior * I.e. Cause and effect

* Behavior with pleasant results are repeated
* Behaviors with unpleasant results are unrepeated * Strongly related to drug use/abuse

* Behavior Genetics
* Studies role of genetics in behavior
* No two people will ever be the same
* Examine physical/behavioral similarities in blood relatives * Cognitive Psychology
* Studies complex behaviors/mental processes
* Perception
* Attention
* Learning/memory
* Verbal behavior
* Concept formation
* Problem solving
* Events that cause behavior consist of functions of the human brain that occur in response to environmental events * Used to treat drug addiction by teaching coping strategies * Cognitive Neuroscience

* Studies to understand cognitive psychological by studying brain mechanisms responsible for them * I.e. Study behavior of people whose brains have been damaged naturally * Diseases

* Tumours
* Strokes
* Developmental Psychology
* Studies the changes in behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience * I.e. Studying the effects of aging
* Helps how drug-taking behavior can change over time
* Social Psychology
* Study of the effects people have on each other’s behavior * Also plays a role in drug addiction
* I.e. Kids who start smoking because of pleasure; instead it is the opposite * Smoke because peers do/social influences
* Personality Psychology
* Categorize/understand the causes of the individual differences in patterns of behavior * Personality can also determine how susceptible a person is to drugs

* Evolutionary Psychology
* Explains behavior in terms of adaptive strategies that specific behaviors provided during the evolution of a species * Use natural selection as a guiding principle
* Must trace development of differences in species and explore how adaptive advantages relate to human behavior * Possibility that addictions are caused by processes not working in our benefit but interact harmfully with respect to certain substances that were not originally part of the early human environment * Cross-Cultural Psychology

* Studies the effect of culture on behavior
* Different cultures have different strategies to interact with environment * Laws/Customs
* Myths
* Religious beliefs
* Ethical principles
* Can be related to drug use
* Some cultural customs may involve drugs
* Clinical Psychology...
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