Midterm Study Guide

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Psychology 244
Instructor: L.J. Harris

PSYCHOLOGY 244

FINAL EXAMINATION

Spring, 2012

Study Guide

Organization of Examination and Samples of Questions that could be made into Multiple-Choice and True-False Questions

All questions will come from the lectures and the assigned chapters and parts of chapters in the text. The questions will be organized (as shown below) into the same main headings and subheadings used in the Lecture Notes, although some subheadings are different to reflect material covered in the text but not in lectures. Under each heading will be a mix of true-false and multiple-choice questions to be answered on a scantron sheet. For some of the true-false and multiple-choice questions, you also may be asked to explain your answer.

Because the test organization will follow the organization of the lectures, be thoroughly familiar with the material presented in lecture. For textbook readings, focus first on the material most related to lecture, but keep in mind that not all topics listed in your lecture notes were covered in lecture.

The questions that follow are not in the multiple-choice or true-false style, but they are a good sampling of questions that, on the examination, will be worked into that style. If you can answer these questions, you should be well-prepared for the examination. To give you an idea about how they could be worked into multiple-choice or true-false format, a few sample questions are provided (printed in reduced font).

Note that many questions ask for definitions of the vocabulary items listed in each chapter (and defined in the margins and in the glossary), so be sure to study these items along with the others not listed here. Any one of them could be incorporated into a question.

The examination is scheduled for Wednesday, May 2, from 12:45 to 2:45 p.m. As I said about the Midterm Study Guide, if you begin soon and answer just a few questions every day, you will finish in ample time. If you wait until the last few days, you’ll be exhausted, you may not finish, and even if you do, you won’t have had the opportunity to study the material in smaller chunks over a longer period (a more efficient way to study). Once again, the Guide is in the form of a Word document, so you can type the answers directly into your computer, but before you begin, I urge you to copy the document onto your hard drive (and be sure to make a back-up copy).

Note: as with the Midterm Guide, you may bring this Study Guide to the examination to use in any way you see fit. But you may bring only a copy that you have downloaded and printed from your computer. As before, you may hand-write your answers and other notes directly onto the printed copy, or you may type answers and other notes directly into the document, and then download and print it.

XI. Language and Communication
(questions from lecture and from text, Chpt. 7, and Chpt. 8, pp. 305-306; also review again material pertaining to speech and language in Chpt. 5, pp. 147-150)

A-1. Introduction. Human Language and Animal Communication 1. How are human language and animal communication alike? How are they different? Another way to ask this question is, are there certain qualities of human language that, according to linguists, set it off from animal communication?

2. Define the terms semanticity, grammar, displacement, and productivity.

3. What did the French philosopher Rene Descartes believe to be the critical difference between humans and other animals? He also believed that this difference was the basis for other differences not only between humans and other animals but between adult humans and human infants. What did he have in mind?

A-2. Methods for Studying Language Development

4. What kinds of methods have been used to study the development of language? Which ones are especially important for studying language development in pre-verbal infants?

B. Components of Language

5. The...
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