Midterm Review Anatomy 1 Lab

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Review: Anatomy I Lab

Chapter 1: Language of Anatomy

What is anatomic position?

- Human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
-two major divisions of human body surface are Axial, and Appendicular

2. Body orientation and direction.

~Superior- above
ex. the nose is superior to the mouth

~Inferior- below
ex. the abdomen is inferior to the chest

~Anterior- front
ex. the face and the arms are in the anterior body surface.

~Posterior- back
ex. the spine is posterior to the heart

~Medial- toward the midline
ex. the heart is medial to the lungs.
ex. the sternum is medial to the ribs

~Lateral- away from the midline
ex. the ear is lateral to the nose

~Cephalad (cranial)- toward the head

~Caudal- toward the tail

~Dorsal- backside

~Ventral- belly side

~Proximal- nearer the trunk or attached end
ex. the elbow is proximal to the fingers.
ex. the knee is proximal to the toes

~Distal- farther from the trunk or point of attachment
ex. the elbow is distal to the shoulder.
ex. the fingers are distal to the elbow

~Superficial (external)-toward or at the body surface
ex. the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles

~Deep (internal)-away from the body surface
ex. the lungs are deep to the rib cage

3. What is a plane?

-When a section is made through the body wall or organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line.
- divides body into frontal, transverse and sagittal planes

4. What are the three major planes?

~Sagittal- runs longitudinally and divides the body into right & left parts.
~Frontal- longitudinaly planes that divides body into anterior & posterior parts.
~Transverse- runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.

5. What are the two large body cavities in axial portion of the body?

~Dorsal
-Cranial- brain is enclosed within the rigid skull
-Vertebral (spinal)- delicate spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column.
~Ventral
-Thoracic- is seperated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the dome- shaped diaphragm; location of heart and lungs and the bony rib cage protects them.
-Abdominopelvic- houses the stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs.

Chapter 3: Cell transport mechanism and permeability

~Active Processes- the cell provides energy (ATP) to power the transport.

~Passive Processes- the transport process is driven by concentration or pressure differences between the interior and exterior of the cell.

~Simple Diffusion- the diffusion or solute particles dissolved in water through differentially permeable membrane.

~Facilitated Diffusion- when some molecules are lipid insoluble or too large to pass through the plasma membrane pores they pass through the membrane by this transport process.

~Osmosis- the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.

~Differential permeability- the molecular composition of the plasma membrane that allows it to be selective about what passes through it; it allows nutrients to enter the cell but keeps out undesirable substances.

~Solute Pump- a form of active transport, substances move through a cell membrane by combining with a protein carrier molecule.

~Pinocytosis- Cell Drinking (taking in liquids containing protein or fat.)

~Phagocytosis- Cell Eating (engulf bacteria or cell debris;help protect body from disease).

Chapter 4: Axial Skeleton

What are the three parts of the axial skeleton?

-Skull -Vertebral Column -Bony Thorax

2. The bones in cranium. (whats the name of the bones) *8 bones make up cranium.

-two paired bones
-Temporal bone
-Parietal bone
-Frontal bone
-Occipital bone
-Sphenoid bone (articulates w/ all other...
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