Chapter 1: Language of Anatomy
What is anatomic position?
- Human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
-two major divisions of human body surface are Axial, and Appendicular
2. Body orientation and direction.
ex. the nose is superior to the mouth
ex. the abdomen is inferior to the chest
ex. the face and the arms are in the anterior body surface.
ex. the spine is posterior to the heart
~Medial- toward the midline
ex. the heart is medial to the lungs.
ex. the sternum is medial to the ribs
~Lateral- away from the midline
ex. the ear is lateral to the nose
~Cephalad (cranial)- toward the head
~Caudal- toward the tail
~Ventral- belly side
~Proximal- nearer the trunk or attached end
ex. the elbow is proximal to the fingers.
ex. the knee is proximal to the toes
~Distal- farther from the trunk or point of attachment
ex. the elbow is distal to the shoulder.
ex. the fingers are distal to the elbow
~Superficial (external)-toward or at the body surface
ex. the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
~Deep (internal)-away from the body surface
ex. the lungs are deep to the rib cage
3. What is a plane?
-When a section is made through the body wall or organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line.
- divides body into frontal, transverse and sagittal planes
4. What are the three major planes?
~Sagittal- runs longitudinally and divides the body into right & left parts.
~Frontal- longitudinaly planes that divides body into anterior & posterior parts.
~Transverse- runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.
5. What are the two large body cavities in axial portion of the body?
-Cranial- brain is enclosed within the rigid skull
-Vertebral (spinal)- delicate spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column.
-Thoracic- is seperated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the dome- shaped diaphragm; location of heart and lungs and the bony rib cage protects them.
-Abdominopelvic- houses the stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs.
Chapter 3: Cell transport mechanism and permeability
~Active Processes- the cell provides energy (ATP) to power the transport.
~Passive Processes- the transport process is driven by concentration or pressure differences between the interior and exterior of the cell.
~Simple Diffusion- the diffusion or solute particles dissolved in water through differentially permeable membrane.
~Facilitated Diffusion- when some molecules are lipid insoluble or too large to pass through the plasma membrane pores they pass through the membrane by this transport process.
~Osmosis- the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
~Differential permeability- the molecular composition of the plasma membrane that allows it to be selective about what passes through it; it allows nutrients to enter the cell but keeps out undesirable substances.
~Solute Pump- a form of active transport, substances move through a cell membrane by combining with a protein carrier molecule.
~Pinocytosis- Cell Drinking (taking in liquids containing protein or fat.)
~Phagocytosis- Cell Eating (engulf bacteria or cell debris;help protect body from disease).
Chapter 4: Axial Skeleton
What are the three parts of the axial skeleton?
-Skull -Vertebral Column -Bony Thorax
2. The bones in cranium. (whats the name of the bones) *8 bones make up cranium.
-two paired bones
-Sphenoid bone (articulates w/ all other...