CC 302/CTI 310: Midterm Exam Short Answer Questions
· What was the position of the tribunes on the escalating conflict between Caesar, Pompey and the senate? What was Cicero’s position? o The tribunes were advocating for compromise with Caesar by offering him legal protection and military power. o Cicero was supporting the senate and Pompey and was in Rome stirring up trouble for the first Triumvirate by speaking out of ending Caesar’s Gallic command to prosecute him for his injustices during consulship. · Describe Caesar’s treatment of the Gauls during his campaigns? How does this contrast with his treatment of Italian cities and citizens in 49 BC? Significance of Caesar crossing the Rubicon? o Caesar committed genocide against millions of Gauls during his campaign and enslaved another million. He also looted spoils of war during his campaign. o In contrast with his treatment of the Italian cities and citizens in 49 BC, he does not execute anyone, he releases captives, and he takes no money from the state to fund his march on Rome. o When Caesar crossed the Rubicon, he passed the point of no return. By doing so he formally relinquished his command in Gaul (he had no authority to do so) and ultimately commits himself to marching on Rome and engaging in Civil War (Alea Iacta Est: “the die is cast”). · Pompey’s reaction to news that Caesar was marching south? What rhetoric did Pompey and the senate use to describe Caesar’s actions? How did Caesar respond/justify his actions? o Pompey’s reaction to Caesar’s march south was to travel East to Greece to rally up troops and support to combat Caesar and retake Italy. o Pompey and the senate claimed that Caesar was a tyrant and they had the right to protect Rome from his advances. o Caesar responded by saying he was protecting the people and the constitution of Rome, which had been violated by the senate and Pompey through illegitimate legislation. · What was Cicero talking about when he said “do you see what sort of man this is into whose hands the state has fallen…I truly believe that if he takes no lives and touches no man’s property, those who dreaded him most will become his warmest admirers.” What did he mean? o Cicero was referring to Caesar’s use of Clementia (“mercy”), which gave him merit and legitimized his conquest in the eyes of the Roman people as a protector. o They would see him as the just one and would end up supporting Caesar. · What happened when Caesar tried to sail to Greece in pursuit of Pompey? o Bibulus had blockaded half of Caesar’s troops and supplies when Caesar tried to sail to Greece in pursuit of Pompey. This effectively diminished Caesar’s fighting chance. · What was Pompey’s general tactic in dealing with Caesar? Why did he abandon this tactic? What famous dictator utilized a similar tactic in the Second Punic War? o Pompey’s general tactic in dealing with Caesar was to wait out Caesar’s undersupplied forces until they starved. He also implemented delaying tactics/guerrilla “hit and run” tactics to slowly weaken Caesar’s forces. o He abandoned this tactic when the Senate became impatient and insisted that Pompey engage in a pitched battle. o Fabius (“The Delayer”) Cunctator used these similar tactics in the Second Punic War. · What happened at Pharsalus? What did Pompey do? Caesar? o Caesar won a decisive victory against Pompey’s forces and offered Clementia to all those who requested it. o Pompey fled to Egypt after his massive defeat.
o Caesar pursued Pompey.
· How did Pompey die?
o Pompey is immediately killed right off of the boat in Egypt by the locals, so that they could appease Caesar. · How did Caesar...