Symbols * = More effective
Week 6 Textbook Ch. 8, p. 268293, 298312 Changes are needed especially to deal with the challenge of global warming and climate change by finding more sustainable ways of operating. Changes make the organisations more flexible and innovative. External forces for Changes (from Various Sources) ● Marketplace > Lowcost services and goods. ● Government Laws and Regulations > Examples: reduce import tariffs, carbon emission trading scheme ● Technology > Significant EOS, replacing human force, communication with other companies ● Labour Market > Attracting and retaining skilled employees in the areas of greatest need ● Economy change > Force organisations to become more cost efficient to survive, in strong economy, uncertainties about interest rates and currency exchange rates Internal forces for Changes (from Internal Operations / Impacts from External forces) ● Modification of Strategy > Changing culture in organisation (from EF) ● Workforce > Experienced employee don’t retire, young cannot promote. ● Equipment > Learn how to use new equipment and establish new interaction pattern ● Employee attitudes > Job dissatisfaction changes with policy Clam Waters Metaphor (Change Process) ● Changes because of dealing with occasional disruptions ● Unfreezing > Increasing driving forces and decreasing restraining forces ● Changing > Maybe shortlived as employees revert to the original equilibrium state ● Refreezing > After the disruption is dealt, go back to business as usual WhiteWater Rapids Metaphor (Change Process) ● Changes because of the changing environment ● Flexible and Able to respond quickly ● Most managers face this today Change agent is someone who acts as a catalyst and assumes the responsibility for managing the change process. ● Outside > Provide objective perspective, but lack understanding of organisation’s culture, history, people, operating procedures. ● Inside > More cautious...
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