Approaches to Development
Why are LDCs underdeveloped? How can this be ﬁxed? note: both theories underestimate value of religion in development
Modernization Theory (or Development Approach)
developing nations must acquire modern cultural values and create modern political and economic institutions; emphasizes historical process of interrelated social changes Basic Beliefs: - transforming culture is the most crucial step in developing. - judge people with universalistic standards - believe in possibility and desirability of change - value science and technology - think about things outside of immediate sphere/village/family etc - believe every day people can inﬂuence politics - transition to democracy can be achieved through: - educational changes - teach modern values - urbanization - will ensure kids attend schools - spread of mass media, communication - spread of modern culture - diffusion of modern ideas from developed nations - need to create more specialized and complex political and economic institutions to support this cultural change - trained bureaucracies - political parties
- cultural/institutional changes will lay foundation for more stable, effective, and responsive political system - believe religion impedes development Basic Problems: - too simplistic and optimistic in initial view of change - ethnocentrism - the intensiﬁcation of ethnic, racial, cultural hostilities has undercut the modernization theory - In Africa and Asia, early modernization has frequently politicized and intensiﬁed ethnic antagonisms - culturally biased - hurts women in the short term because industrialization, urbanization, and spread of world capitalism widened the gender gap - social/economic modernization can cause political instability and violence - sometimes wrong - Brazil, Mexico, Taiwan, Singapore have all had economic success begin under authoritarian governments The Theory Reworked: - The Conﬂict Theory - Political instability is a necessary evil for long run economic growth - Early stages of economic growth require wealth to be concentrated in a small number of hands so that incipient capitalists could acquire sufﬁcient capital for major investments - The Reconciliation Approach - with the right policies, developing nations can simultaneously achieve goals previously thought to be incompatible - examples: Both Barbados and Costa Rica achieved democracy and stability at simultaneously Samuel Huntington - Reworked the theory because noticed political instability after decolonization
- Modernization leads to social mobilization (which makes new demands on the state, building codes, transportation, hospitals etc) - If demands are placed upon the state faster than the state capabilities (i.e. political institutions) are growing, then it overwhelms them and will lead to political decay (riots, civil wars, etc)
Dependency Theory (or Underdevelopment Approach)
LDCs are politically and economically subordinate to the West; they’re stuck there. Basic Beliefs: - Colonialism and economic imperialism turned LDCs into providers of cheap food and raw materials for the developed world. - Believe only socialist countries can achieve economic independence and development - Developing nations cannot follow same path as the west did because the west changed the path, made it impossible. - Economic dependence has led to political dependence - Leads to center periphery (metropolis satellite) relationship within third world societies - comprador elite with transnational ties to MNCs have political and economic power despite the large mass of urban and rural poor - This relationship is maintained through: - the dependence of third world countries on raw material exports - terms of trade, unequal exchange - the ﬁrst world's control of advanced technology - the operation of ﬁrst world multinational corporations - international debt Basic Problems: - Critics believe LDCs cannot...