Marketing 407 Exam 2

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EXAM 2 REVIEW
MKTG 407 (Fall 2011)

Chapter 9

Understand the 2 essentials and the various elements of culture we discussed. •Culture: everything humans learn and share with members of a society oLearning & Sharing→ eating with a spoon or eating with pork chops is culture→ we learn and share these things Culture vs. Nature

-Both within ourselves
-And in the physical world outside us
-Nature: opposite of culture both human and nature, human natures is to be utterly selfish but culture reins in our personal desires. In the physical world river and oceans are nature but bridges and damns are culture

Elements of Culture
-Values→ a society’s idea as to what in life is worthy of pursuit and how those pursuits should be conducted

-Myths→stories that express some key values of a society

-Norms→ unwritten rules of behavior

-Laws→ laws are norms with legal sanctions

-Rituals*→ Set of activates performed in a fixed sequence and repeated periodically, utilitarian (daily baths) or symbolic (wedding ritual)

-Customs*→ ways of doing things, when to wear which clothes is dictated by customs (rituals is an event normally, customs can be a ritual)

-Knowledge, Science and Technology*→ all knowledge is culture, it is fundamentally the basis of beliefs on which we base our actions

-Arts*→ Music, paintings, literature→ represent a society’s appreciation of the aesthetic experience o*Material Culture→ all man made physical things
They represent the degree of affluence and progress of a society in contrast to the life lived entirely in and with nature •The Chairs, soaps and detergents, wines beers, cell phones→ represent material culture -(Culture or not? Starbucks cup of coffee? Bar of dove soap, tv commercial for Nike featuring a celebrity? Print ad for a medicine focusing entirely on medical benefits?)

Be able to distinguish between enculturation and acculturation (i.e., make sure you can recognize examples of each). -Enculturation- Learning ones own culture. Usually happens during childhood, mostly when we are growing and learning the ways of the world. -Acculturation- Learning a new culture is called. Happens when we migrate to a new society or when we spend a considerable part of our lives with persons from other cultures.

Be familiar with the 6 Characteristics of Culture. (P.229) •Culture is… learned→ we are not born with it, the act of laughing or crying is not culture but knowing when to laugh or cry is culture Adaptive→ culture is a human response to the environment and as the environment changes, culture is likely to adapt itself to new environment (you can adapt to having no phones, just drop by) Environmental→ envelops life alike and always (elevator exp) Hierarchical→ The culture of the larger group constrains and shapes the culture of the smaller groups within it Makes living Efficient→ because culture is shared, we don’t have to learn things anew as we encounter new people and new situations within the same culture (once u know Egyptian culture u can interact with all Egyptians that way) Regulates Society→ Culture makes everyone behave, offering norms and standards of behavior, everyone knows the rules to live by •Be able to distinguish between the core Eastern and Western values. Western Values

-Individualism→ individuals responsible for their own success (don’t sacrifice for a group) -Freedom→ individuals are free to practice any religion, support any political party, play any sport, speak their minds etc. -Merit, competitiveness, Accomplishment→ be competitive to gain success -Materialism→ Americans value material success, wealthy people -Change & Progress→ values change over tradition, believe in the power of science and technology to solve problems such as diseases -Equality of opportunity→ all persons are deemed equal in the eye of the law of the land Eastern Values

Collective Identity→ individuals are expected to show consideration for the...
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