In the first lesson of the discipline of Business English, students were asked to discuss and submit brief answers the following questions: 1. Define a Manager
2. Define Management
3. Define an Administrator
4. What is the difference between them?
5. What are the key activities of a Manager?
Various answers were given and were grouped so that each student make comments arguing or supporting the ideas presented in class. It is in this perspective that the following is the questions raised and the answers given and also my position in relation to these answers. 1. Define a Manager
Answer 1: A person who thinks about Strategic Planning.
This answer is very generic and doesn’t fit into Manager’s responsibility. Development of Strategic Planning is a collegial process that should involve as appropriate: * those who will be implementing the plan (e.g. management, staff, volunteers); * those who will be affected (e.g. members, users, etc); * those who will monitor its implementation (e.g. Management Committee); and * Others who can contribute to its development (e.g. community activists, funding bodies, etc). Answer 2: A person who works through the people to achieve organizational goals. This answer is applicable for management concept as indicated by Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008) who defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Answer 3: A person responsible for achieving goals
Answer 4: A person with ability to lead people to achieve aims Answer 5: A person who combines resources to achieve certain objective
The three answers include some relevant aspects in the manager's responsibilities such as planning, coordination, and leadership, however, an incomplete. According to Robert N. Lussier(2003), a manager is responsible for achieving organization objectives through efficient and effective use of resources. Efficient refers to doing things right. Effective refers to doing the right thing. For this author a Manager is the person who plans, organizes, leads, coordinate, and controls resources to achieve organizational objectives through others. To conclude, Managers are not only responsible for Planning, Organizing, Leading and Evaluating but also Manage and Inspire complex teams having different aspirations and coming from different social and cultural, economic and ethnic background.
Levels of management
Robert N. Lussier(2003) indicate three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles. Top-level managers
Consists of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level. * Broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness. Top management's role is:
* Lay down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. * Issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules, etc. * Prepares strategic plans and policies for the enterprise. * Appoint middle level executives, i.e., departmental managers. * Controls and coordinate activities of all departments. * Maintain contact with the outside world.
* Provides guidance and...