Introduction to Management and Organizations
The 21st century has brought with it a new workplace, one in which everyone must adapt to a rapidly hanging society with constantly shifting demands and opportunities. The economy has become global and is driven by innovations and technology and organizations have to transform themselves to serve new customer expectations. Today’s economy presents challenging opportunities as well as dramatic uncertainty. The new economy has become knowledge based and is performance driven. The themes in the present context area ‘respect’, participation, empowerment, teamwork and self management. In the light of the above challenges a new kind of leader is needed to guide business through turbulence. Managers in organizations do this task. A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. It is not about personal achievement but helping others do their job. Managers may also have additional work duties not related to coordinating the work of others.
Managers can be classified by their level in the organization, particularly in traditionally structured organizations—those shaped like a pyramid
First-line managers (often called supervisors) are located on the lowest level of management.
Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization.
Top managers include managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
The changing nature of organizations and work often requires employees in formerly nonmanagerial jobs to perform managerial activities. Non managerial jobs are those where one works directly on a job and had no one reporting to him. Mary Parker Follet defines management as, “The art of getting things done through people”
Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively.
Coordinating and overseeing the work of others is what distinguishes a managerial position from a nonmanagerial one.
Efficiency is getting the most output from the least amount of inputs in order to minimize resource costs. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right” Effectiveness is completing activities so that organizational goals are attained and is often described as “doing the right things”
No two managers’ jobs are exactly alike. All managers perform certain function, enact certain roles and display a set of skills in their jobs.
According to the functions approach managers perform certain activities to efficiently and effectively coordinate the work of others. They can be classified as 1)
Planning involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Organizing involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals.
Leading involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals.
Controlling involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance.
Since these four management functions are integrated into the activities of managers throughout the workday, they should be viewed as an ongoing process and they need not the done in the above sequence.
In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg conducted a precise study of managers at work. He concluded that managers perform 10 different roles, which are highly interrelated. Management roles refer to specific categories of managerial behavior. Overall there are ten specific roles performed by managers which are included in the following three categories.
Interpersonal roles include figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities. Informational roles include...