Copyright 2011, The American Philosophical Association. Last revised: June 13, 2011 Philosophy: A Brief Guide for Undergraduates
1. The Field of Philosophy Introduction Traditional Subfields of Philosophy Special Fields of Philosophy 2. The Uses of Philosophy General Uses of Philosophy The Uses of Philosophy in Educational Pursuits The Uses of Philosophy in Non-Academic Careers 3. The Philosophy Curriculum 4. Conclusion The unexamined life is not worth living. —Socrates Happiness is something final and complete in itself, as being the aim and end of all practical activities whatever … Happiness then we define as the active exercise of the mind in conformity with perfect goodness or virtue. —Aristotle Now laws are said to be just both from the end (when, namely, they are ordained to the common good), from their author (… when the law does not exceed the power of the lawgiver), and from their form (when, namely, burdens are laid on the subjects according to an equality of proportion). —Saint Thomas Aquinas There is a great difference between mind and body, inasmuch as body is by nature always divisible, and the mind is entirely indivisible. —René Descartes Love is pleasure accompanied by the idea of an external cause, and hatred pain accompanied by the idea of an external cause. —Spinoza The effect is totally different from the cause, and consequently can never be discovered in it. —David Hume The very notion of what is called Matter or corporeal substance involves a contradiction. —George Berkeley The understanding does not derive its laws (a priori) from, but prescribes them to, nature. —Immanuel Kant
The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. —John Stuart Mill There can be no difference anywhere that does not make a difference somewhere. —William James Whereof one cannot speak thereof one must be silent....