Kin 2500 Muscles

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KIN 2500 -- MUSCLES
O: origin
I: insertion
A: action
N:
Lever: rigid structure that moves around a fixed point fulcrum * Effort: causes the movement; force that is due to the muscular contraction; you only get motion when the effort that is applied at the insertion point exceeds the load * Load/Resistance: opposes that movement

* 1st class levers: not very common; fulcrum is fixed between effort and load * 2nd class levers: standing on tip toes; fairly uncommon; the load is between the fulcrum and the effort * 3rd class levers: most common; effort is between the fulcrum and the load; i.e. flexor of our elbow Anatomical Position:

On legs: flexor on posterior; extensor on anterior

Movement is the result of many muscles
Opposing Actions the prime mover/agonist is going to be responsible for the action while the other muscle is the antagonist * Supinator: prime mover/ agonist
* Pronator: opposing/ antagonist
Synergist: stabilizes intermediate joints
Fixator: stabilizes the origin of the agonist so this agonist can work more efficiently

Characteristics that are used to name muscles:
1. Direction of muscle fibers
a. Rectus: run parallel to the midline
b. Transverse: runs transversely
c. Oblique: run at an angle
2. Size of the muscle
d. Maximus: largest
e. Minimus: smallest
f. Longus: longest
g. Brevis: shortest
h. Longissimus: widest
i. Magnus: large
j. Major:
k. Minor:
l. Vastus: great
3. Shape of the muscle
m. Deltoid: triangle
n. Trapezius: trapezoid
o. Seratus: saw tooth
p. Rhomboidous: diamond shaped
q. Orbicularis: Circle
r. Pectinate: Cone
s. Puriformous: pear shaped
t. Platous: flat
u. Bigradous: square
v. Briscillous: slender
4. Action of the muscle:
w. Flexor/extensor
x. Abduction/adduction
y. Levator: elevates
z. Depressor: produces inferior movement
{. Pronator/supinator
|. Speaker: decreases size of an opening
}. Tensor: makes a body part tense/rigid
~. Rotator: moves bone around longitudinal axis
. Superficialous: superficial
. Profundous: especially in hands and feet

Head and Trunk
Sternocleidomastoid: Origin=sternum, clavicle/ Insertion=mastoid/ Action=together cervical flexion, singly rotate opposite side/ N=Accessory, C2-C3

Muscles of Abdomen
Rectus Abdominis: O=pubic crest & symphysis/ I=cartilage of ribs 5-7 & xiphoid/ A=compress abdomen & flex vertebral column/ N=T7-T12
External Oblique: O=lower 8 ribs/ I=iliac crest, linea alba/ A=together compress abdomen, singly laterally flex vertebral column/ N=T7-T12, iliohypogastric Internal Oblique: O=iliac crest, inguinal ligament/ I=cartilage of last 3-4 ribs/ A=together compress abdomen, singly laterally flex vertebral column/ N=T8-T12, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal Transversus Abdominis: O=iliac crest, inguinal ligament, cartilage of last 6 ribs/ I=xiphoid, linea alba/ A=compress abdomen/ N= T8-T12, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal

Muscles used in Breathing
Diaphragm: O=xiphoid, catilage of last 6 ribs/ I=central tendon/ A=pulls central tendon increase thorax length during inspiration/ N=Phrenic External Intercostals: O=inferior border of rib above/ I=superior border of rib below/ A=elevates ribs, increases thorax lateral & anteroposterior/ N=intercostals Internal Intercostals: O=superior border of rib below/ I=inferior border of rib above/ A=depresses ribs, decreases thorax lateral & anteroposterior/ N=intercostals

Posterior Thoracic Muscles
Trapezius: O=occipital, spines c7-t12/ I=clavicle, acromion, scapula spine/ A=elevate clavicle & head, adduct-rotate-elevate-depress scapula/ N= Accessory, C3-C4 Rhomboideus Major: O=spines t2-t5/ I=vertebral border of scapula below spine/ A=adduct scapula & rotate down/ N= dorsal scapular

Levator...
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