Key Terms and People Chapter 15

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Fort Sumter - In 1861, that spark occurred at Fort Sumter, a federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina , that was attacked by Confederate troops, beginning the Civil War. Determined to seize the fortress -- which controlled the entrance to Charleston harbor -- the Confederates ringed the harbor with heavy guns. Border States - Wedged between the North and the South were the key border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri -- slave states that did not join the confederacy. Kentucky and Missouri controlled parts of important rivers. Winfield Scott - Taking advantage of the Union's strengths, General Winfield Scott developed a two-part strategy: (1) destroy the South's economy with a naval blockade of southern ports; gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the South. Other leaders urged an attack on Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital. Cotton diplomacy - The South hoped to wear down the North and to capture Washington D.C. Confederate president Jefferson Davis also tried to win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy. This was the idea that Great Britain would support the Confederacy because it needed the South's raw cotton to supply its booming textile industry. Cotton diplomacy did not work as the South had hoped. Britain had large supplies of cotton, and it got more from India and Egypt. Abraham Lincoln - Abraham Lincoln was born Sunday, February 12, 1809, in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky. His father was a carpenter and farmer. Lincoln's declining interest in politics was renewed by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. In 1856 Lincoln gave his Lost Speech. He opposed the Dred Scott decision in 1857 and gave his famous York "House Divided" Speech on June 16, 1858. He also engaged in a series of debates with Stephen A. Douglas in 1858. Lincoln was against the spread of slavery into the territories but was not an abolitionist. Douglas won the Senatorial race, but Lincoln gained national recognition. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson - American Confederate general, he led the Shenandoah Valley campaign and fought with Lee in the Seven Days' Battles and the First and Second Battles of Bull Run. "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall!" cried one southern officer. "Rally behind the Virginians!" At that moment , General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson earned his famous nickname. First Battle of Bull Run - The Confederates lacked the strength to push north and capture Washington, D.C. But clearly, the rebels had won the day. The First Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War, and the Confederates' victory. The battle is also known as the first Battle of Manassas. It shattered the North's hopes of winning the war quickly. George B. McClellan - The shock at Bull Run persuaded Lincoln of the need for a better trained army. He put the hopes in General George B. McClellan. The general assembled a highly disciplined force of 100,000 solders called Army of the Potomac. American army general put in charge of Union troops and later removed by Lincoln for failure to press Lee's Confederate troops in Richmond. Robert E. Lee - In June 1862, with McClellan's force poised outside Richmond, the Confederate army in Virginia came under the command of General Robert E. Lee. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Lee had served in the Mexican War and had led federal troops at Harpers Ferry. Lee was willing to take risks and make unpredictable moves to throw Union forces off balance. Seven Days Battle - During the summer of 1862, Lee strengthened his positions. On June 26, he attacked, launching a series of clashes known as the Seven Days' Battle that forced the Union army to retreat from near Richmond. Second Battle of Bull Run - Jackson wanted to defeat Pope's army before it could join up with McClellan's larger Army of the Potomac. Jackson's troops met Pope's Union forces on the battlefield in August in 1862. The three-day battle became known as the Second...
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