Definitions, Review Questions, Critical Thinking
Chapter 1: Natural Hazards
Geologic cycle: A group of interrelated sequences of Earth processes known as the hydrologic, rock, techtonic, biogeochemical cycles. Mitigation: The avoidance of, lessening, or compensation for anticipated harmful effects of an action, especially with respect to the natural environment. Land-use planning: The preparation of an overall master plan for future development of an area; the plan may recommend zoning restrictions and infrastructure both practical and appropriate for the community and its natural environment; based on mapping and classification of existing human activities and environmental conditions, including natural hazards. Tectonic cycle: A repetitive sequence of events and processes that create and destroy the Earth’s crust and its ocean basins and mountain ranges. 1. What forces drive internal and external earth processes? Tectonic plates drive internal earth processes, and Energy from the sun drives the earth’s processes. 4. Explain why the effects of natural hazards are not constant over time. Human population density and land-use patterns have increased over time. 8. What are the five fundamental concepts for understanding natural processes as hazards? 1. Hazards are predictable from scientific evaluation. 2. Risk analysis is an important component in our understanding of effects of hazardous processes. 3. Linkages exist between different natural hazards as well as between hazards and the physical environment. 4. Hazardous events that previously produced disasters are now producing catastrophes. 5. Consequences of hazards can be minimized. 13. What is a precursor event? That which precurses, a forerunner, a predecessor an indicator of approaching events. An example would be foreshocks before a large earthquake or prior to a volcanic rupture, gas emission may signal an imminent eruption. 20. What are natural service functions? When a disaster happens it’s the positive that comes out of it. For example when the Mississippi river floods it supplies nutrients to the flood plain and creates fertile soil. Critical thinking
2. It has been argued that we must control human population because otherwise we won’t be able to feed everyone. Even if we could feed 10 to 15 billion people, would we still want a smaller population? I think that it would be wise to have a smaller population because there is more than just not being able to feed everyone that needs to be factored. You would need to worry about natural resource consumption as well as emissions.
Chapter 2: Earth and Plate Tectonics
Convergent boundary: Interface between two tectonic plates in which one plate generally descends below the other in a process known as subduction. Lithosphere: Outer layer of Earth, approximately 100 km thick, which comprises the tectonic plates that contain the ocean basins and continents; includes both Earth’s crust and the solid, upper part of the mantle. Moho: Mohorovicic discontinuity - Compositional boundary that separates the less dense crust from the underlying higher density mantle. Subduction zone: Convergence of tectonic plates where one plate dives beneath another and is consumed in the mantle Transform boundary: Interface between two tectonic plates where one plate slides horizontally past another, such as along the San Andreas fault in California; synonymous with a transform fault. 2. How are the major properties of the lithosphere different from those of the asthenosphere? 3. What are the three major types of plate boundaries?
5. Why has the study of paleomagnetism and magnetic reversals been important in understanding plate tectonics? 7. What is the difference between ridge push and slab pulling the explanation of plate motion? Critical Thinking
1. Assume that the supercontinent Pangaea (seeFigure2.17) never broke up. Now deduce how Earth processes, landforms, and environments might be different from how they are...
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