Topics: Cerebral palsy, Extension, Muscle Pages: 4 (487 words) Published: May 13, 2013
I. Management Programs vs. Instructional programs
II. Patterns of normal development
Cephalo – Caudel (head to tail)
Proximal – Distal (midline first)
Mass to Specific
Gross to Fine (large movements to small)

Extension- straightening
Supine- lying on back
Prone- lying on stomach
Abduction- away from midline
Adduction- to midline

III. Neuromuscular involvement
A. Cerebral palsy - definition and etiology
Brain centered
Lack of muscle control
Pre, peri, or post-natally
Anoxia- lack of oxygen

B. Classifications of neuromuscular involvement
Hypertonia- tightened/contracted muscles
50% of people with CP have this type
IQ increases overtime
Difficulty communicating
Flexor spasticity- tight ball
Extensor spasticity- pushed out
Hypotonia- loose, flaccid muscles
Athetosis- Alternating hypertonia and hypotonia
Rigidity- stiff
Tremor- hands, arms
Ataxia- balance issues
-Less than 3% have it

C. Classification according to limb involvement
Monoplegia- One arm and one leg
Hemiplegia- 1/2 of the body
Double hemiplegia- 4 limbs, A+ L-, more on one side
Triplegia- 3 limbs, L+
Paraplegia- Legs only
Quadriplegia- 4 limbs equally
Diplegia- 4 limbs, L+

IV. Handling and positioning
A. Rotation
-never lift anyone more than 1/3 of your weight
B. Inversion
-when the hips are higher than the head
-head lifting
C. Positioning
1. Four basic principles
1. Chin slightly flexed
2. Arms and shoulders down and forward
3. Head and trunk in midline
4. Hips, knees, and ankles at 90 degrees
2. Why and when to position
3. Prone – wedges (belly)
-wedges are not one size fit all
-bring them an activity
-sternum to knees (or ankles)
-bolster can be added to a wedge (adduction)
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