Introduction to Research

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 105
  • Published : May 1, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
CHAPTER 1
DEFINITION, PURPOSE & IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH

1

WHY SHOULD KNOW ABOUT RESEARCH:
n

Being knowledgeable about research and research methods helps professional managers to: n Identify and effectively solve minor problems in the work setting. n Know how to discriminate good from bad research. n Appreciate the multiple influences and effects of factors impinging on a situation. 2

Cont d WHY SHOULD KNOW ABOUT RESEARCH:
Take calculated risks in decision making. n Prevent possible vested interests from exercising their influence in a situation. n Relate to hired researchers and consultants more effectively. n Combine experience with scientific knowledge while making decisions n

3

WHAT IS RESEARCH?
an intensive activity that is based on the work of other and generates new ideas to pursue and questions to answer. n Increasing understanding of how and why researchers behave the way they do. n
4

RESEARCH:
n n n n

n n

n n

Is based on the works of others Can be replicated Is generalizable to other settings Is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory Is doable Generates new questions or is cyclical in nature Is incremental Is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society

5

RESEARCH:
n

RESEARCH IS BASED ON THE WORK OF OTHERS
n n

Past research guides new research Research is NOT copying the work of others Repeatability is a sign of credible science Replication guides future research 6

n

RESEARCH CAN BE REPLICATED
n n

Cont d RESEARCH:
n

RESEARCH IS GENERALIZABLE
n Research

should apply to situations outside of the study setting

n

RESEARCH IS NOT DONE IN INTELLECTUAL ISOLATION
n It n It

is based on some logical rationale is tied to theory
7

Cont d RESEARCH:
n

RESEARCH IS DOABLE
n

Good research questions can be translated into projects that can be done! Research generates new questions Research is incremental Research should have the betterment of society as its ultimate goal 8

n

RESEARCH IS ONGOING
n n

n

RESEARCH IS APOLITICAL
n

MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
n

n

n

Doing science means following a model that begins with a question and ends with asking new questions A shared philosophical approach to understanding the world A standard sequence of steps in formulating and answering questions

9

MODEL OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
n

Hallmarks or main distinguishing characteristics of scientific research: n n n n n n n n

Purposiveness Rigor Testability Replicability Precision and Con dence Objectivity Generalizability Parsimony 10

Deduction and Induction
n

Deductive reasoning: application of a general theory to a specific case. n Hypothesis testing Inductive reasoning: a process where we observe specific phenomena and on this basis arrive at general conclusions. n Counting white swans Both inductive and deductive processes are often used in research. 11

n

n

The steps in the research process

12

RESEARCH PROCESS
n

n

QUESTIONS n Asking a question n Identifying a need IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT FACTORS n Not fully investigated n Advance understanding n Can be investigated n Are interesting n Lead to more questions 13

Cont d RESEARCH PROCESS
n

n

FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS n If then statements n Objective extension of the original question n In a testable form COLLECTING RELEVANT INFORMATION n Hypotheses posit a relationship between different factors n Data are collected that will confirm or refute the hypothesis n Hypotheses are testable (not provable

14

Cont d RESEARCH PROCESS
n n

n n

n

TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS Inferential statistics n Separate effects of factors from effects of chance n Assign a probability level to obtained data WORKING WITH THE HYPOTHESIS If the hypothesis is confirmed n Plan new research If the hypothesis is refuted n Try to understand what other factors might be important 15

Cont d RESEARCH PROCESS
n...
tracking img