Introduction to Cosmology Notes

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 194
  • Published : February 28, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Technical Report 2005–12

Ka Chun Yu Lecture Notes for Introduction to Cosmology

Denver – 2005

DMNS Technical Report 2005-12, 167 pages total

Lecture Notes for Introduction to Cosmology
October, 2005 by Dr. Ka Chun Yu Curator of Space Science Denver Museum of Nature & Science

Available at https://scientists.dmns.org/sites/kachunyu

Contents
1 Cosmology From Ancient to Modern Times 1.1 The Ancients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 European Thought Before the 20th Century 1.3 The Beginnings of Modern Science . . . . . 1.4 The Copernican Revolution . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Modern Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 The Expanding Universe . . . . . . . . . . . 2 What Is In the Observable Universe? 2.1 The Extra-Galactic Zoo . . . . . . . . 2.2 Baryonic Composition of Galaxies . . . 2.3 Dark Matter Composition of Galaxies . 2.4 Galaxy Clusters and Superclusters . . . 2.5 The Cosmic Distance Ladder . . . . . . 2.5.1 Trigonometric Techniques . . . 2.5.2 Standard Candles . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 Cepheid Variables . . . . . . . . 2.5.4 Other Standard Candles . . . . 2.5.5 Redshifts and the Hubble Flow 2.6 Galaxy Cluster Mass . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 More on Dark Matter . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 5 7 8 10 13 13 21 25 29 38 39 41 41 42 46 48 49 53 56 58 61 61 62 62 67 69 70

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Theoretical Universes 3.1 The Curvature of Space-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 The Distribution of Matter and Energy in the Universe 3.3 Modeling the Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Einstein’s Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 The de Sitter Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 The Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universes . . 3.4 Cosmological Redshifts and the Hubble Constant . . . 3.5 The Critical Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 The Age of the Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

iv 4 The 4.1 4.2 4.3 5 The 5.1 5.2 5.3

CONTENTS Big Bang Cosmic Element Abundances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cosmic Microwave Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Steady-State Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accelerating Universe Deceleration Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type Ia Supernovae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More on Dark Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 75 77 81 85 85 90 93

6 Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background 97 6.1 Analyzing the Fluctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6.2 Origins of the Power Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 6.3 Analyzing the Anisotropies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 7 Structure Formation in the Universe 113 7.1 The Millenium Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 8 Inflation and the Early Universe 8.1 Problems With the Big Bang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Problems Solved? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The Earliest Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 121 123 128

9 Rampant Speculation 133 9.1...
tracking img