Intravenous Fluid Selection

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Intravenous therapy, Blood, Saline
  • Pages : 17 (4524 words )
  • Download(s) : 66
  • Published : February 21, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
BENNMC03_0131186116.qxd 3/9/05 18:24 Page 20 seema Seema-3:Desktop Folder:PQ731:

EQA

CHAPTER

3

Intravenous Fluid Selection

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe and differentiate colloid and crystalloid IV fluids Understand osmosis as it pertains to water movement with IV therapy Define tonicity and the actions of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic crystalloids in the body Identify the three most common IV solutions used in the prehospital setting, and classify them as isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic Describe how an IV fluid is packaged and important information located on the label of the IV fluid

KEY TERMS
5% Dextrose in water—A carbohydrate solution that uses glucose (sugar) as the solute dissolved in sterile water. Five percent dextrose in water is packed as an isotonic solution but becomes hypotonic once in the body because the glucose (solute) dissolved in sterile water is metabolized rapidly by the body’s cells. Colloid solutions—IV fluids containing large proteins and molecules that tend to stay within the vascular space (blood vessels). Crystalloid solutions—IV fluids containing varying concentrations of electrolytes. D5W—See 5% dextrose in water. Extracellular space—Space outside the cells consisting of the intravascular and interstitial spaces.

GRIDLINE SET IN 1ST-PP TO INDICATE SAFE AREA; TO BE REMOVED AFTER 1ST-PP

BENNMC03_0131186116.qxd 3/9/05 18:24 Page 21 seema Seema-3:Desktop Folder:PQ731:

EQA

CHAPTER 3 Intravenous Fluid Selection

21

Hypertonic crystalloid—A crystalloid solution that has a higher concentration of electrolytes than the body plasma. Hypotonic crystalloid—A crystalloid solution that has a lower concentration of electrolytes than the body plasma. Intracellular space—Space within the cells. Intravascular volume—Volume of blood contained within the blood vessels. Intravenous fluids—Chemically prepared solutions that are administered to a patient through the IV site. Isotonic crystalloid—A crystalloid solution that has the same concentration of electrolytes as the body plasma. Lactated Ringer’s—An isotonic crystalloid solution containing the solutes sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium lactate, dissolved in sterile water (solvent). LR—See Lactated Ringer’s. Normal saline solution—An isotonic crystalloid solution that contains sodium chloride (salt) as the solute, dissolved in sterile water (solvent). The specific concentration for normal saline solution is 0.9%. NS—See Normal saline solution. NSS—See Normal saline solution. Osmosis—The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. This movement of water allows the equalization of the solute-to-solution ratio across the membrane. Oxygen-carrying solutions—Chemically prepared solutions that can carry oxygen to the cells. Plasma—Fluid surrounding the cells of the body. Ringer’s lactate—See Lactated Ringer’s. Solute—Particles that are dissolved in the sterile water (solvent) of an IV fluid. Solvent—The liquid portion of an IV solution that the solute(s) dissolves into. The most common solvent is sterile water. Total body water—Water contained within the cells, around the cells, and in the bloodstream. Water comprises about 60% of the body’s weight.

Case Study
You are staffing a first aid center for the city’s 5-kilometer run for charity. With the temperature at 96oF and the humidity at 92%, the first aid center is overwhelmed with patients suffering from dehydration. Because IV therapy is within your scope of practice, the lead physician instructs you to start an IV and administer IV fluid to a 32-year-old female who is seriously dehydrated and extremely weak.

GRIDLINE SET IN 1ST-PP TO INDICATE SAFE AREA; TO BE REMOVED AFTER 1ST-PP

BENNMC03_0131186116.qxd 3/9/05 18:24 Page 22 seema Seema-3:Desktop Folder:PQ731:

EQA

22 CHAPTER 3...
tracking img