Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids 1. a. Where are fluids absorbed? Intestine
b. Where are excess fluids and electrolytes lost? Kidneys
2. Name four of the six functions of water.
a. Temperature regulation
b. Protective cushion
3. a. The amount of water in the body depends on the amount of fat tissue. b. From the CD, list the person with the highest and lowest percentage of water and give the percentage. 1. Highest Newborn 73%
2. Lowest The more fat a person has, the less water present. Female facing forward 40% 4. List the three fluid compartments and the percentage of total body water in each. a. Intracellular 62%
b. Interstitial 30%
c. Plasma 8%
5. Give an example of each of the following solutes:
a. Ions/electrolytes Sodium
b. Colloids Proteins
c. Nonelectrolytes Glucose
6. List the major extracellular and intracellular cations and anions a. Extracellular cations: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium anions: Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Protein, Organic acids, Phosphates, and Chloride b. Intracellular cations: Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium
anions: Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Protein, Phosphates and Chloride 7. Within a fluid compartment, the total number of positive charges must be equal to the total number of negative charges.
8. Name four of the seven functions given for electrolytes:
a. Cofactors for enzymes
b. Action potentials in neuron and muscle cells
c. Secretion and action of hormones and neurotransmitters
d. Muscle contraction
9. Osmosis: When more solute particles are added to one side of a container with a selectively permeable membrane, which way will the water move? From the side with more water and less solute to the side with less water and more solute. 10. What happens to a patient’s red blood cells when the following solutions are given: a. Hypotonic solution The cell will bust or haemolyse
b. Hypertonic solution The cell will crenate
c. Isotonic solution The...
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