Infection Control

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INFECTION CONTROL
Pathogen- Infectious agent
Colonization- If microorganism is present or invades host, grows and/or multiplies but does not cause infection. Communicable disease- if infectious disease can be transmitted from one person to another. -Symptomatic-if pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs/symptoms. -Asymptomatic- if no s/s are present

*CHAIN OF INFECTION:
1. An infectious agent or pathogen
2. A reservoir or source for pathogen growth
3. A portal of exit from the reservoir
4. A mode of transmission
5. A portal of entry to a host
6. A susceptible host
Virulence- Ability to survive in the host or outside the body. Dose- sufficient number of organisms
Reservoir- A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply. *A variety of microorganisms live on the skin and within the body cavities, fluids, and discharges* BACTERIA:
1. Water-Most require water or moisture
2. Temperature- microorganisms can only live in certain temp ranges (IDEAL 20-43 degree C) -Bacteriostasis- cold temp prevent growth & reproduction of bacteria -Bactericidal- a temp or chemical that destroys bacteria

3. pH- Prefer pH from 5-7
4. Light- Most microorganisms thrive best in dark environments such as under dressings and within body cavities Portal of exits- Blood, skin, and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, GI tract, and transplacental (mother to fetus). Susceptibility- degree of resistance to a pathogen

Pathogenicity- extent of infection depends on the dose of the organism, and the susceptibility of the host. Inflammatory response-protective reaction that serves to neutralize pathogens and repair body cells *NON SPECIFIC Superinfection- when a broad-spectrum antibiotic eliminates a wide range of normal flora organisms, not just the infection. Inflammation-body’s cellular response to injury, infection, or irritation. Inflammatory Exudates- fluid & cells that are discharged from cells or blood vessels -Serous- clear, like plasma

-Sanguineous- contains RBCs
-Purulent-WBC’s & bacteria
COURSE OF INFECTION
Incubation period- interval b/t entrance & appearance of 1st symptoms Prodromal stage- onset of non-specific S/S- onset of more specific symptoms Illness stage- interval when client manifests S/S specific to type of infection Convalescence- interval when acute symptoms or infection disappear Granulation tissue- scar tissue

HAIS (nosocomial infections)-health care associated infections *sites: urinary tract, surgical or traumatic wounds, Respiratory tract, bloodstream *HAIS are either exogenous ( present outside the body) or endogenous (part of normal flora or virulent organisms residing that could cause infection). Latrogenic infection- type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. Client susceptibility- Many factors influence susceptibility; age, nutritional status, stress, disease process, medical therapy. *Localized infections are most common areas of skin or mucous membrane breakdown, such as surgical or traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, oral lesions, and abscesses. * To identify causative organisms, nurse collects specimens of body fluid such as sputum or drainage from infected body sites for cultures. * Rinse contaminated objects with COLD WATER to remove organic material. Hot water causes the protein in organic material to coagulate & stick to objects. Suppurative- pus forming infection

Asepsis- absence of pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms Medical asespsis- clean technique, lowers # of organisms present & prevents the transfer of organisms. Disenfection-process that eliminates many or all microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores Sterilization-complete elimination or destruction of ALL microorganisms, including spores. ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS:

Contact transmission: Direct- care & handling or contaminated body fluids (blood or body fluid from infected to workers direct skin.) Indirect-transfer of an infectious agent...
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