Human motivational theories propounded by Maslow, Herzberg , McClelland and Vroom
Motivation is a term that refers to a process that controls, and sustains certain behaviours. For instance: An individual has not eaten, he or she feels hungry, and as a response he or she eats and decreases feelings of hunger. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy and the needs are: Physiological needs, Security or Safety needs, Social needs, Esteem needs, Need for self-actualization. Herzberg has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. Hygiene factors are: Security, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, and work conditions, relationship with supervisor and company policy and administration. McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs: Need for Power, Need for Affiliation, Need for Achievement. Vroom’s theory focuses on three things: Efforts and performance relationship, Performance and reward relationship, Rewards and personal goal relationship.
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. Herzberg stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfies for employees at work. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document