Human Biology Notes

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Treatment| Why?| How?| What?| Pros| Cons|
Ovulation induction(OI)| OI is used when the female fails to ovulate this may be due to different reasons. | Ovulation is stimulated by FSH and LH. OI treatment synthetically provides FSH and LH if the OI is caused by a direct problem with the ovary then OI can not be used as treatment. | 1. Clomiphene-increases FSH levels stimulates the P.gland 2. Gondatrophin given by injection increases LH and FSH levels| 1. Possibility of fertilisation 2. 70-80% of abnormal couples have a normal chance of falling pregnant | 3. Multiple pregnancies 4. Individual Response to treatment can be unpredictable | Artificial Insemination(IUI)| IUI is used to increase a women’s chance of fertility by increasing the number of eggs available | Sperm is injected directly into the cavity of the womb (uterus). The treatment is usually coupled with ovarian stimulation drugs | 1. Tablets given to delay period 2. Clomiphene+ gondatrophin 3. Monitoring scanning 4. Further injection(HCG) 5. Sperm 6. Insemination | 1. Very small risk 2. | 1. Risk of ovarian hyper stimulation (OHSS) 2. Multiple pregnancy| Invitro fertilisation| IVF may be necessary for a number of different reasons:• Blockage, damage or absence of the fallopian tubes• Endometriosis• Unexplained infertility• Male factor infertility• Ovulation problems that are difficult to treat by conventional means• Combination of infertility factors| The fertilisation happens outside the body. Then the fertilised egg is injected back into the cavity(womb)| 1. Preliminary tests - sperm count, blood tests for FSH level, HIV and Hepatitis B, C and Rubella, 2. swabs from the cervix for bacteria and Chlamydia. 3. Pre-treatment information session - information and implications 4. Pituitary suppression with LHRHa - nasal spray to stop the ovaries working (temporarily) 5. Stimulation of the ovaries with Gonadotrophins - drugs...
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