-Monopoly of Violence
-Governance is about rules (rules aren't there until they're put there.)
-Setting the rules
-Applying and interpreting the rules
-Enforcing the rules
~Who will do the things above?
~To whom do the rules apply?
-Meta-rules: rules about setting,applying,interpreting the rules.
-Governance is about managing the rules in order to enhance the legitimacy of the public realm.
-Public Realm: the rules, rule-makers, meta-rules, etc.
-Legitimate in the eyes of the rule-followers
How to Judge
-Efficiency: the rules seem to work (outcomes)
-Procedural: the rules seem to be fair (process)
How to judge legitimacy?
~Voice/ Access / Democratic Procedures
~Transparency / Accountability
-Circularity of Governance
-Rules are institutions
-Formal (written) or informal (unwritten)
-Includes behavioral codes and norms
-”Humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction” (Humans came up with it)
-They limit the set of “possible” choices
-They reduce uncertainty, making interaction easier
-They can be altered
-Usually only gradually-institutions are “sticky”
-However big shocks can produce big changes
-Putting the “global” in global governance
-”What does a “rule” mean in the global context?”
-Rules about what?
-Who are the rule-makers, interpreters, and enforcers?
-What makes the global governance system legitimate?
-Nation-States (or “network states?”)
-Network of States (e.g. NAFTA)
-Networks of International Organizations (e.g. the UN)
-Regional/ Local Governments (devolution of power)
-NGOs (and networks of NGOs) (Red Cross, Al Qaida) Corporation=McD’s/Wal-Mart -Social-Movements (and networks of movements)
-Global public opinion and the global media
-The marketplace (no one and everyone) (Amoral)
-Who’s really governing?
A Few Easy Governance Models
-Coercion and force
-I will govern
-Superpower unilateralism, colonialism, imperialism, world government, etc.
-Voluntary Delegation (consent)
-Usefulness: You can govern
Authority: you should govern
-War on Terror, Antarctica, Immunizations, Etc.
-We will govern (all of us or a crucial some of us)
-Tragedy of the Commons (managing cows)
-Collective action problems
-All states benefit from ending piracy, but it costs 100
-Each state gets 1 if it ends
-Even though all states would be better off if it ended, no state has an incentive to contribute to ending piracy
-All states have an incentive to “free ride” on contributions of others
-So, can piracy be ended?
-Necessary for the group to set up mechanisms/ institutions/ rules to prevent free riding
Collective Action Problems
Coordination Problem= 2 States
Public Goods (Yarborough Reading)
-Public Goods are goods that are both:
-1) Non-excludable: Anyone can enjoy them whether or not they contribute
-2) Non-Rivalrous: one person’s use does not diminish the supply available to others. -Examples:
-Clean Air (a certain type of object)
-National Security (abstract concept) “Even Al Qaida get to enjoy it”
-Absence of sex trafficking (lack of object)
Taxes are a mean for providing public goods.
-Public goods tend to be under provided.
-Free-rider problem: If I can’t be excluded from using the good, I lack an incentive to contribute to the provision of the good.
~Everyone would be better off with provision of the public good.
~No one has incentive to contribute, so it goes under provided. -Example: Scientific Research
-Practical Science: Pat enable and sale-able, so companies have incentive for R&D Investment
-Theoretical Science: Non-Patenable and Non-Sale able, so companies lack incentive for R&D...