I. Mechanism of Control of Germany as a Core: European Union
i. Germany’s Overseas Expansion
* Roger Chickering 1996
* Germany’s Kolonial reich (colonial empires) symbolized the country’s great power * Colonies gave assurance to economic security of the country, business expansion the bourgeois class and also to increase the people’s standard of living * Germany had already showed interest in overseas world
* Due to Economic modernization, industries within Germany became dependent on overseas markets and the supplied raw materials * As large scale of emigration threatened Germany’s population, the only solution possible was for Germany to establish settlement colonies overseas * In 1884, Togo and Cameroon in West Africa, countries in Southwest Africa, Northeastern New Guinea and islands in the Pacific went under Germany * As well as areas in Micronesia, Samoa and Kiachow
* Dietrich Orlow 1999
* For Germany to be placed among the Great Powers, Germany necessarily has to acquire both navy and overseas empires. * Before World War I, Germany had already formed colonies and seized the Marshall Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago, Kiaochow of China, Cameroon, Togoland, German Southwest Africa (currently Namibia) and Germany East Africa (now Tanzania).
ii. Hegemonic Rule of Germany in the Succeeding World Wars and Cold War and the Consequences Brought * Roger Chickering 1996
World War I
* It was believed that Germany’s desire for territories with Belgium, Luxemburg and Northern France has led to World War I * The war has been the cause of the excessive influence of soldiers in German politics at that time * Theobald von Bethman Hollweg, chancellor of Germany at that time, and the rest of the civilian leadership had supported programs regarding possessions of countries with the east and west in able to secure Germany’s hegemony on the European Continent as well as to increase the Imperial Germany’s social power and to block the democratic reform of the constitution within the country * The elites had implemented programs of possession/annexations in order to stabilize the authoritarian structures of power in Germany * In relation to Lenin’s thesis on imperialism, the war aims of the German government represented the resort of all European powers to aggression in the highest imperialist stage of capitalist government * Imperialistic Militarism was the system of domination in Imperial Germany according to Willibald Gutsche * Some debated whether the war had caused revolutionary conflicts within Germany or served as to promote democratization and significant degree of domestic integration * Lenin’s Thesis had given answers to these questions
* The continuation of the war had deepen internal contradictions within the imperialistic rule * The war gave insufferable burden to the masses and intensified the class conflict * This was followed by what Lenin called as state monopoly capitalism which is the combination of monopoly capitalism and institutions where the state governed by the ruling class was regulating war productions, maximize profits, intensify exploitation of workers and suppress popular opposition to the war
* Dietrich Orlow 1999
World War I Consequences
* Germany’s defeat in World War I had been an indication for the war to end * Germany had been devastated and many of the consequences had fallen into them * Germany had faced depopulation, destroyed industrial facilities and a large amount of national debt as well as decline in standard of living
Treaty of Versailles
* After the midst of the war, the victorious Allied power had proposed terms of peace to the German’s National Assembly or what is called the Treaty of Versailles * This treaty was a one sided agreement where the victors of the war expressed their purpose to change the global balance of power by preventing further...