Geography Final Studyguide

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Geography
“geo” the earth
“graphy” to describe

5 Key Themes of Geography
1. Location – specific location, where?
2. Place – unique properties of a place, no two places on earth are alike 3. Movement – communication, circulation, migration, and diffusion across the Earth’s surface 4. Region – an area defined by uniform characteristics

5. Human-Earth Relationships – human interaction with an environment; resource exploitation, environmental pollution, hazard perception

Geography Matters: A cautionary tale...
Mauritius
Mauritania

Differentiation
Describe and explain differences between places

Integration
Describe and explain linkages or connections between places

Cautions
No region is homogenous throughout
Regional borders are fuzzy
Obscures global connections

Vernacular
Vague cognitive borders
Used by the public to refer to a general area
Combination of traits real or imagined
Formal
Distinct boundaries constructed using one specific trait
Functional
Based on a certain activity or organization

Globalization
Increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political and cultural change. How places remain distinct more interconnected and interdependent

Converging Currents of Globalization
Global communication
Global transportation
Powerful transnational corporations and financial institutions. International free trade agreements.
Market economies and privatization.
Homogenous global consumer culture.
Economic inequity, disparities

Proponents of Globalization
Logical expression of modern international capitalism.
Economic system wealth and means of producing wealth are privately owned and controlled rather than public or state controlled. New wealth will trickle down from rich to poor (countries and individuals). Will spread benefits of new ideas and technologies.

Countries can produce goods best suited.
Need to attract capital from abroad will force countries to adopt sound economic policies. World’s poor countries will catch up to rich ones.

Opponents of Globalization
Not “natural”; economic policy promoted by core countries results in inequities between “haves” and “have nots” Promotes free-market, export-oriented economies at expense of localized, sustainable economies. “Free market” economic model promoted for developing countries is not the one that Western industrial countries used for their own development. Encourages “bubble” economies.

A Middle Ground?
Economic Globalization is probably unavoidable.
Even anti-globalization movement is aided by the Internet.
“Make globalization work” by investing in education and maintaining social cohesion. Can be managed.

McDonald’s Strange Menu Around the World
By Beatrice Adams

Population
Different rates of population growth around the world
Also focus on migration rather than natural growth
Rural to Urban Migration
Population planning takes many forms
One Child Policy; Please Have Children Policy

Rate of natural increase (RNI) – world average is 1.2 percent/yr: annual growth rate for a country or region, expressed as a percentage increase or decrease; equals the number of births minus the number of deaths; excluding migration Crude birth rate (CBR) the gross number of births divided by the total population, giving a figure per 1,000 of the population; world CBR is 21 per 1,000

Total fertility rate (TFR): the average number of children borne by a statistically average woman; world TFR is 2.7, but ranges from 1.5 (Europe) to 5.0 (Africa); TFR=2.1, population is stable;

TFR>2.1, population is growing
TFR<2.1, population will decline

Crude death rate (CDR):
the gross (total) number of deaths divided by the total population, producing a figure per 1,000 of the population; world CDR is 9 per 1,000 Young and Old Populations:
Percentage of population under age 15: global average is 30 percent, low is 17...
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