Forging A World Economy; 1400-1800
The Rise of the West: Scholars tried to explain why political & economic power was concentrated in the hands of Western States (Western Europe & the US). Debates between the two got heated because it concerned the present the future as much as it did the past. A.On one side; Cultural Approach: were those who congratulated today’s winners in the global economy by arguing that the rich were wealthy because they had the most virtuous social, economic, and political institutions. The rich are rich because they have a culture that supports success. The Culturalist see the cause of poverty as a behavior of the poor the poor are themselves primarily responsible for improving their position, (offers comfort to those already enjoying economic success? B.On other side: Global Historical Approach: argued that Western success was accidental and temporary, built upon force and expropriation as much as any positive cultural attributes. Stresses the role of other civilizations. Global Historicist sees poverty as a result of the relationship between the poor and the rich. The system of political and economic relations must be changed to create greater equity (urges mobilization and change)
Investigation begins in 1400’s when Spanish adventurers forcefully integrated sections of the Americas into an intercontinental economy that already linked parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. This was a period when the major regional economies in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas were brought into increased contact through the persistence of the European Expansionism beginning of the first truly worldwide or global economy.
Key political, economic, and socio cultural developments between the 1400-1800.
1.Cultural Interaction-Voyages of exploration brought the world closer together and promoted the spread of ideas, people, and beliefs.
Christianity and Islam extended their reach, while new currents of thought in Europe began to alter views of nature and society.
New technologies arose (printing, navigation & weaponery) advancing & revolutionalizing travel, communication, and warfare.
Political Structures-European monarchs built strong states and ruled with absolute power. Gunpowder empires in Asia also expanded.
Through overseas conquests, European countries built their own empires in the Americas, extending their power across the Atlantic.
State took on increased political and military power the formed new empires around the world
3.Economic Structures-Trade networks expanded, producing a global economy. As commerce increased, the ideas of capitalism began to develop. The slave trade also grew, fueling the plantation system and placing millions of Africans in bondage.
4.Social Structures-Social classes in Europe began to change with the development of capitalism. New social systems also developed in the American colonies. The expansion of slavery produced a legacy of racism and inequality. But it also brought African cultural influences to the New World and enriched American societies.
New ideas & scientific knowledge influence society & culture that ultimately changed the world.
5.Human-Environment Interaction-European colonization of the Americas prompted migration across the Atlantic. Global population x3 from 375 in 1400 to 950 in 1800. It also caused the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the hemispheres.
In 1400: pep of Europe & the Americas knew nothing about 1nother lands. + of the world was disconnected. Even large parts of Asia & Africa were a mystery for those not living there. Over the next few centuries,...
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