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CONFIDENTIAL

LG/OCT2010/BEL311

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

COURSE CODE

BEL311

EXAMINATION

OCTOBER 2010

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

This question paper consists of two (2) parts:

PART A: SECTION 1
SECTION 2
PART B: (1 Question)

2.

(7 Questions)
(7 Questions)

Answer ALL questions from all parts in the Answer Booklet.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator.

4.

You are allowed to bring in your English-English dictionary.

5.

Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of: i) the Question Paper
ii) an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
This examination paper consists of 9 printed pages
© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

LG/OCT2010/BEL311

2

PART A: READING COMPREHENSION (20 MARKS)
Read the following articles and answer all the questions in the answer booklet provided. SECTION 1: Article 1
The Ethics and Law on Organ Transplantation in Malaysia

I

Organ transplantation is a form of treatment for serious and life-threatening diseases which has proven to be successful. It involves replacing diseased and defective

organs

and tissues

with

healthy

ones from

donors.

Recent

advancements in surgical procedures and the availability of anti-rejection drugs have contributed tremendously to the success of organ transplantation. These 5 developments have made the transplant procedure a possible treatment for those suffering from various organ failure states. The commonly transplanted organs are kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs and pancreas while transplantable tissues are liver, bone marrow, skin and heart valves. Presently, organs for transplantation can come from either a living person - the live donor, or a dead person - the

10

cadaveric donor.

II

Live donors are an important source of tissues and organs for transplantation. Donors can be parents, siblings or close relatives who are genetically related to the recipients; or spouses and very close friends who are "emotionally related" to the recipients. They are collectively known as "live-related donors". Kidney, parts

15

of the liver and certain tissues, such as bone marrow, skin and blood can only be obtained from live donors. Some of the ethical problems that need to be solved for live donations are questions of consent. There is a need to know whether the organs are given freely and not under duress, and whether the risks are explained to the donors. Another concern would be to ensure that no payments are involved

20

in the procurement of the tissues and organs.

HI

Cadaveric organ donation is the donation of organs after the death of an individual. This would provide organs and tissues for all types of transplantations being performed in the country. Removing the organs from a dead person is usually not a problem, especially if the donor has given express consent prior to 25

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA

CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

3

LG/OCT2010/BEL311

his death. Organs can also be taken from the deceased if no express consent has been given on condition that relatives do not object to it. An important ethical question in cadaveric organ donation involves the exact definition of death. In other words, at what stage death has occurred. Traditionally, a patient is pronounced dead when he stops breathing. However, in cadaveric organ 30 transplantation, organs are best removed when the heart is still beating but the patient is already technically dead, with irreversible loss of brain stem function - a situation called brain death. Generally, doctors accept that being brain dead is the same as being dead. However, the patient can be pronounced brain dead only by doctors who are not part of the...
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