Virtually all the computer offer integer arithmetic. The two properties of integer arithmetic are as follows a) Result of any arithmetic operation is an integer
b) Result is always exact with two exceptions
• Range of integer that can be represented is not infinite but is bounded above and below. • The result of the division operation is given as the combination of the quotient and the remainder. Remainder of the result is always truncated. 2. Floating point arithmetic

Due to economic consideration, computers are designed such that each location in memory at stores only a finite number of digits. For example,
A computer has a memory in which each location can store one or more signs. There are two methods for representing the real numbers.

Assume a fix position for decimal point and store all number (after appropriate shifting if necessary) with assumed decimal point. If such convention is used, maximum and minimum numbers that can be stored are 9999.99 and 0.00001 respectively

Another convention aims to preserve the maximum no of significant digits. This representation is called normalized floating point mode of representation and storing real number. In this, real number is expressed as combination of mantissa and exponent. The mantissa is made lass than one greater that or equal to 0.1 exponent is power of 10 which multiplies mantissa. Memory location with 6 digit are divided in two parts, 4 digits for mantissa and 2 digits for exponent. While storing number the leading digit is mantissa is always made nonzero by appropriate shifting and adjusting the value of exponent.

Shifting the mantissa to left till its most significant digit is nonzero is called normalization. Normalization is useful to preserve the maximum number of useful digits. Maximum range for the number...

...A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries outarithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored informPrograms
The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer, and it will process them. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language.
In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of...

...Experimental Errors and Uncertainty
No physical quantity can be measured with perfect certainty; there are always errors in any measurement. This means that if we measure some quantity and, then, repeat the measurement, we will almost certainly measure a different value the second time. How, then, can we know the “true” value of a physical quantity? The short answer is that we can’t. However, as we take greater care in our measurements and apply ever more refined experimental methods, we can reduce the errors and, thereby, gain greater confidence that our measurements approximate ever more closely the true value. “Error analysis” is the study of uncertainties in physical measurements, and a complete description of error analysis would require much more time and space than we have in this course. However, by taking the time to learn some basic principles of error analysis, we can: 1) Understand how to measure experimental error, 2) Understand the types and sources of experimental errors, 3) Clearly and correctly report measurements and the uncertainties in those measurements, and 4) Design experimental methods and techniques and improve our measurement skills to reduce experimental errors. Two excellent references on error analysis are: • • John R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in...

...A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Ads by Plus-HD-V1.5c×Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1]
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons...

...MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
FIJI SCHOOL LEAVING CERTIFICATE
EXAMINATION
2012
COMPUTER STUDIES
COPYRIGHT: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, REPUBLIC OF FIJI, 2012.
2.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
FIJI SCHOOL LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION – 2012
EXAMINER’S REPORT
COMPUTER STUDIES
GENERAL COMMENTS
A total of 3302 candidates appeared for the Computer Studies examination compared to 3347 in 2011.
There has been a notable increase in the number of candidates taking the subject in schools.
Candidates often failed to read and understand the questions well and therefore were not able to answer
what was required.
They often lost marks for:
•
•
•
•
failing to follow instructions.
not giving examples when required to.
writing essays in point-form.
lack of understanding and knowledge of programming.
SECTION A
This section was done quite well as most of the candidates scored above 15 marks. This showed that
candidates have understood most of the questions well but a thorough coverage on some topics could have
resulted in better marks.
The table below shows the comments on the performance of the candidates in each question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Well done
Well done
Well done
Well done
Well done
Poorly done
Well done
Satisfactory
Satisfactory
Well done...

...Akintunde (A.K.A LAGBE) Computer package Hand
Hand-
Book powered by www.lagbeglobal.net
What is a Computer?
A computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a
principal
computer are: it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner
defined
and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).
Modern Computers Defined
Moderncomputers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires,
transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called
software.
All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:
memory: enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.
mass storage device: allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of
data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.
input device: usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit
through which data and instructions enter a computer.
output device: a display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the
computer has accomplished.
central processing unit (CPU): the heart of the computer, this is the component
that actually executes instructions.
In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic...

...Worksheet — Summary of identified misstatements
Entity Period ended
335
Page 1 of 2
Objective: To document misstatements identified during the audit and to evaluate: - The effect of identified misstatements on the audit. - The effect of uncorrected misstatements, if any, on the financial statements.
Performance materiality
Insignificant misstatements under $
need not be recorded below.
Amount of over (under) misstatement in the financial statements Circumstances of occurrence Pre-tax income Corrected? Yes/No W/P ref.
Description
Assets
Liabilities
Equity
F/S disclosures
Total of identified misstatements during the audit Misstatements corrected by management Total uncorrected misstatements Effect on income taxes on uncorrected misstatements Effect of uncorrected misstatements from prior periods Uncorrected misstatements to be carried forward
C•PEM Forms — Audits
April 2010
Worksheet — Summary of identified misstatements
EVALUATION OF MISSTATEMENTS 1. 2. Update overall and performance materiality for any revisions required during the audit. (Form 420) Ask management to correct all identified misstatements and summarize management’s reasoning as to why any misstatements have not been corrected. Describe any patterns in the misstatements that might indicate possible management bias or possible fraud. Describe the effect of individually material misstatements, if any, (such as in sales) where an offset by other misstatements...

...Higher Arithmetic
Higher arithmetic, also known as the theory of numbers, is known for its basics of the natural numbers, simple numbers. The numbers, 1, 2, and 3 are numbers that are known as natural numbers. H. Davenport of Cambridge University once said “…in all the records of ancient civilizations there is evidence of some preoccupation with arithmetic over and above the needs of everyday life” (Introduction). The theory of numbers being a science, is simply just a creation invented for the present times. We, as humans, learn regular arithmetic as children, with games such as marbles and other fun counting games. Eventually, as we get to elementary school, we learn the use of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, the basics essentially. Math tends become more complex as we move on to middle school and high school. Middle school and high school is where we eventually start using higher arithmetic to understand the current math we are being taught. Although not everyone has an actual rulebook of the higher arithmetic, these laws stand universal. A question can be asked, how important is higher arithmetic? Higher arithmetic is used daily not just by mathematicians, but people of everyday quality. Higher arithmetic is essential, however, it should not be put over human needs and the qualities of everyday life, higher...

...In the Third Century B.C.E., Euclid formalized, in his book Elements, the fundamentals of arithmetic, as well as showing his lemma, which he used to prove the Fundamental theorem of arithmetic. Euclid's Elements also contained a study of Perfect numbers in the 36th proposition of Book IX. Diophantus of Alexandria wrote Arithmetica, containing 130 equations and treating the essence of problems having only one solution, fraction or integer.
Congruence relation
Modular arithmetic can be handled mathematically by introducing a congruence relation on the integers that is compatible with the operations of the ring of integers: addition, subtraction, and multiplication. For a positive integer n, two integers a and b are said to be congruent modulo n, written:
if their difference a − b is an integer multiple of n (or n divides a − b). The number n is called the modulus of the congruence.
For example,
because 38 − 14 = 24, which is a multiple of 12.
The same rule holds for negative values:
Equivalently, can also be thought of as asserting that the remainders of the division of both and by are the same. For instance:
because both 38 and 14 have the same remainder 2 when divided by 12. It is also the case that is an integer multiple of 12, which agrees with the prior definition of the congruence relation.
A remark on the notation: Because it is common to consider several congruence relations for different moduli at...

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