Where it’s been. Where it’s going.
Dedicated to People Flow
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
● Elevator history ● Conventional elevator technology ● Technological advances ● MRL cost & space savings, and sustainability benefits ● Future trends
people ride on elevators each day.
“The biggest assets of companies go up and down elevators every day.” – Famous adage
Why is elevator knowledge important to you?
Because it is essential to ensure efficient people flow in the buildings architects design.
The first elevator may have been built by Archimedes in 236 B.C.
A treadmill hoisting machine, powered by donkeys, appeared in 1203.
In 1823, an “ascending room” provided paying visitors with a wonderful view of London. Elevator Technology
Primitive steam-powered cable and hydraulic elevators appeared around 1850. Elevator Technology
400' and above.
Geared Traction Elevators
Gearless Traction Elevators
Elevator Technology 1950 – mid 1990s
Conventional Elevator Technology
Three configurations: 1) Direct Plunger ● Holed 2) Roped Plunger ● Roped ● Underslung 3) Holeless (not pictured) Elevator Technology
Traction Configurations 1)Overhead 2) Basement 3) Underslung
Hydraulic vs. Traction
Advantages: ● Cost less to install ● Shorter lead-times ● No reactions at the top of the structure
Drawbacks: ● Higher noise level ● Slow speeds ● Poor ride quality ● High energy consumption ● Environmental concerns – significant use of hydraulic oil
Traction vs. Hydraulic
Advantages: ● Higher speeds ● Greater rise ● Smoother ride quality
Drawbacks: ● Higher installation cost ● Longer lead times ● Longer installation ● Significant loads on top of structure ● Penthouse requirements ● Critical path
A Technological Breakthrough in 1996
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
● Saves energy ● Eliminates traditional machine room ● Eliminates hydraulic oil ● Simplifies installation ● Sustainable ownership
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency Drive (VVVF)
● Reduces motor size and weight ● Reduces energy consumption and heat output ● New motor/drive technology enabled the creation of “Machine Room-Less (MRL) elevator solutions.
● AC Gearless PMSM Technology - +93% efficient - 50-70% less energy than traditional traction or hydraulic machine technology - 6.7 hp vs. 40-60 hp ● Reduced Starting Current Demand - 30-40% less energy than traditional hydraulic or traction
Savings Comparison - Traction
Commercial Elevator, seven landings, 60’ of rise, $0.15 kWh annual energy savings ● Traditional Geared - 32,919 kWh/year - $4,938 a year ● PMSM Technology - 14,476 kWh/year - $2,171 a year Assuming a useful life of 30 years, that’s a lifetime savings of $83,010 – enough for a new Lexus LX 570 SUV
Savings Comparison - Hydraulic
Commercial Elevator, five...