Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment These interactions determine the distribution of organisms and their abundance Modern ecology includes observation and experimentation
The Scope of Ecological Research
Ecologists work at levels ranging from individual organisms to the planet
The biosphere is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems Global ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere
A landscape or seascape is a mosaic of connected ecosystems
Landscape ecology focuses on the exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
An ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components
A community is a group of populations of different species in an area Community ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community Community ecology
How organisms interact and form functional communities.
A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area Population ecology focuses on factors affecting population size over time Population ecology
Studies species interactions
What is an exotic species?
……….and can it be harmful?
Organismal ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges Organismal ecology includes physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology Physiological ecology
How organisms are physiologically adapted to their environment and how much the environment impacts the distribution of species. Behavioral ecology
How the behavior of an individual...