October 31st, 2012
Issues in this unit: racism, war, discrimination, etc.
WWII; Race war
Strong ethnocentrism. Nativism doesn’t have any institutional power. Nativism becomes more a national policy, national identity. In Meiji period, Japanese were aware of what happened in China; change of terminology (people stop referring China as the middle kingdom, and refers it as Shina?, reflect a different stand towards China). Ethnocentrism has a different grounding. Difference between ethnocentrism and racism: Racism is a form of ethnocentrism trying to root itself scientifically. Race doesn’t exist as such but racism existed and it’s grounded in different measurements, scientific measurements. 1860 (In Meiji period): sending people in the United States to learn who these people are, their lifestyles, etc. (first encounter of racism). No caste system, confrontation with social Darwinism. Japan is launching into creating a nation; an empire. Expansion of the empire by forming equal treaty with Korea. 1894-5: First Sino-Japanese war with China. Outcome of this war: Japan established a public government in Seoul. Japan occupies Korea and Manchuria + Formosa (Taiwan) were under Japan’s dominance. 1904-5: Conflict for control of Korea and Manchuria. Japan (victorious) against Russia. Japanese empire defeated a Western towel (a big event in media; lots of novel written –science-fiction-, yellow creatures are invading the western continent, fear/taking over of the world by the yellow race) Japan situated on the same power as westerners. After the Russo-Japanese war: Japan start to build infrastructures in Korea. Multi-cultural army (no need to be Japanese in order to be in the Japanese army). Japanese army encouraged intermarriage between different nations within the army. The nation-state is struggling between multi-ethnicity and mono-ethnicity. Tend to think that Japan is a mono-cultural and mono-ethnic country now, but it is not true. Japan is a multiethnic and multicultural country. End of the Meiji period (1912: Meiji emperor died; panic about how to burry the emperor -> used Buddhist ritual, but Japan is Shinto…) Beginning of the Taisho period. Yellow burden: a burden on the Japanese politically to liberate the other yellow races of Asia. Founded the Japan civilization society since the burden failed. At the Versailles treaty in 1919, Japan proposed a proposal of racial equality. However, America overturns it. It has a big impact in Japan and Asia but the Westerner countries do not care about it. Western empire is racist and the goal of Japanese empire is to overturn this. Political goal in Japanese empire: equality; sign of liberation. Conflict in 1919: March first movement in Korea. A group of nationalist in Korea (form of resistance); want to claim their independence from Japan; massive atrocities, approx. 2 millions Korean participated. Japan tried to begin cultural policy; police replaced by civilians. Turning point. Japan realized that it has to be a cultural empire; need to begin negotiations. Chinese/Korean people getting training in Japan (Tokyo) -> Part of the cultural policy. Washington conference: Groups of nation met to establish military equilibrium. Japan and Britain (who’s navy is bigger). Started to break down because of the policy in Britain that wanted Japan to… with Russia?...? 1990s?: Tried to contain the Japanese colony in Asia.
1923: Earthquake that destroyed Tokyo. Attempt to get rid of all the political opposition. At the same time, violence against Korean people in Tokyo (some people claimed that the earthquake was because of the Korean). All these lead to the end of the Taisho period Showa period begins: Japanese can walk anywhere in China and this is not against the Chinese law. Japanese can wander always and form different kinds of connection (ex. Commerce). Westerners do not enjoy the same kind of privileges. Japanese language becomes the only language in Korea. Korea...