Earth Science Notes

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Chapter 1
1.1 Earth Science & the Earth System
-Earth science is the study of Earth and the processes that shape it -The earth system is composed of four principal components: atmosphere (air, weather), hydrosphere (water, ice), biosphere (plants, animals), and geosphere (land, rocks). - Earth science can be broadly defined as the investigation of interactions among the four parts of the earth system. - The second largest earthquake ever recorded buckled the seafloor west of Sumatra, Indonesia 2004. - We interact with earth every time we eat. (Water, ice, salt, kaolinite, elements) 1.2 What is Science?

-Science is a process discovery that increases our body of knowledge 1.3 Doing Science
- Scientists use observations to form testable hypotheses.
-There are four basic principles to remember when conducting a scientific investigation. -Critical thinking skills
•Applying knowledge and understanding to new circumstances
• Analyzing and evaluating information to make interpretations and solve problems
• Creating and conceiving new concepts, principles, and knowledge -The SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a systematic approach to answering questions. -The SCIENTIFIC METHOD requires the use of empirical observations, which can be made and corroborated by others, to form ideas to answer questions. These ideas are called hypotheses. -Hypotheses are developed as a potential explanation of observations. -The process of testing the hypothesis, which is the hallmark of using the SCIENTIFIC METHOD, can be performed either by inductive or deductive reasoning.

-Characteristics of Bad Science
An attack on the scientist, not the science
People who argue from authority
Confusion over cause and effect
The use of bad statistics
Chapter 2
Major Points according to the lecture:
* Well-developed biosphere from an abundance of water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a magnetic fields that shields away solar radiation * Solar radiation powers activities in hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere * Earth’s position about the Sun provides sufficient solar energy to sustain life * Annual variations in solar radiation cause the seasons and are a consequence of Earth’s tilt on its axis 2.1 Old Ideas, New Ideas

-Ancient civilizations wrongly believed in a geocentric universe with the sun revolving around Earth -Early astronomers such as Copernicus and Galileo advanced the hypothesis of a heliocentric solar system with the sun at its center -Earth has a unique position in our solar system, providing us with liquid water and sufficient heat energy to sustain life - Aristotle’s geocentric view was accepted 2300 years ago. Aristarchus’s heliocentric view was not accepted. - Then there was Ptolemy’s geocentric perspective which was 1900 yrs ago. After that, Copernicus cam up with his own heliocentric perspective which lasted from 1473-1543 - In 1609, Galileo introduced the telescope and his observations were used to test Copernicus -Heliocentric orbit hypothesis – 16th century idea suggested by Copernicus

-Confirmed by Galileo’s early 17th century observations of the phases of Venus
-Changes in the size and shape of Venus as observed from Earth

-Galileo used early telescopes to observe changes in the size and shape of Venus as it revolved around the sun

2.2 Origin of the Universe
- The universe is thought to be nearly 14 billion years old according to estimates of the rate at which distant galaxies are moving away from us - Astronomers have created an inflationary model of the origin of the universe known as The Big Bang. - Edwin Hubble(1889-1953) – discovered that other galaxies existed and that all galaxies are moving apart. (i.e. The universe is expanding). -Hubble Space Telescope (1990) – after adjustments made to the lens, the HST has sent back to Earth magnificent images. Internal mirrors stretch the focal length of its camera to 190 ft. Doppler Effect: The apparent change in the frequency of sound waves or...
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