1.1 Earth Science & the Earth System
-Earth science is the study of Earth and the processes that shape it -The earth system is composed of four principal components: atmosphere (air, weather), hydrosphere (water, ice), biosphere (plants, animals), and geosphere (land, rocks). - Earth science can be broadly defined as the investigation of interactions among the four parts of the earth system. - The second largest earthquake ever recorded buckled the seafloor west of Sumatra, Indonesia 2004. - We interact with earth every time we eat. (Water, ice, salt, kaolinite, elements) 1.2 What is Science?
-Science is a process discovery that increases our body of knowledge 1.3 Doing Science
- Scientists use observations to form testable hypotheses.
-There are four basic principles to remember when conducting a scientific investigation. -Critical thinking skills
•Applying knowledge and understanding to new circumstances
• Analyzing and evaluating information to make interpretations and solve problems
• Creating and conceiving new concepts, principles, and knowledge -The SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a systematic approach to answering questions. -The SCIENTIFIC METHOD requires the use of empirical observations, which can be made and corroborated by others, to form ideas to answer questions. These ideas are called hypotheses. -Hypotheses are developed as a potential explanation of observations. -The process of testing the hypothesis, which is the hallmark of using the SCIENTIFIC METHOD, can be performed either by inductive or deductive reasoning.
-Characteristics of Bad Science
An attack on the scientist, not the science
People who argue from authority
Confusion over cause and effect
The use of bad statistics
Major Points according to the lecture:
* Well-developed biosphere from an abundance of water, an oxygen-rich atmosphere, and a magnetic fields that shields away solar radiation * Solar radiation powers activities in hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere * Earth’s position about the Sun provides sufficient solar energy to sustain life * Annual variations in solar radiation cause the seasons and are a consequence of Earth’s tilt on its axis 2.1 Old Ideas, New Ideas
-Ancient civilizations wrongly believed in a geocentric universe with the sun revolving around Earth -Early astronomers such as Copernicus and Galileo advanced the hypothesis of a heliocentric solar system with the sun at its center -Earth has a unique position in our solar system, providing us with liquid water and sufficient heat energy to sustain life - Aristotle’s geocentric view was accepted 2300 years ago. Aristarchus’s heliocentric view was not accepted. - Then there was Ptolemy’s geocentric perspective which was 1900 yrs ago. After that, Copernicus cam up with his own heliocentric perspective which lasted from 1473-1543 - In 1609, Galileo introduced the telescope and his observations were used to test Copernicus -Heliocentric orbit hypothesis – 16th century idea suggested by Copernicus
-Confirmed by Galileo’s early 17th century observations of the phases of Venus
-Changes in the size and shape of Venus as observed from Earth
-Galileo used early telescopes to observe changes in the size and shape of Venus as it revolved around the sun
2.2 Origin of the Universe
- The universe is thought to be nearly 14 billion years old according to estimates of the rate at which distant galaxies are moving away from us - Astronomers have created an inflationary model of the origin of the universe known as The Big Bang. - Edwin Hubble(1889-1953) – discovered that other galaxies existed and that all galaxies are moving apart. (i.e. The universe is expanding). -Hubble Space Telescope (1990) – after adjustments made to the lens, the HST has sent back to Earth magnificent images. Internal mirrors stretch the focal length of its camera to 190 ft. Doppler Effect: The apparent change in the frequency of sound waves or...