Sci/362 Week 1

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Terms and Definitions Worksheet
Write brief descriptions for each of the following terms. If you use an outside source to define them, include an APA citation for the source.

Scientific methoda method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant dataare gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested.

Environmental scienceThe interdisciplinary study of how humanity interacts with other organisms and the nonliving physical environment. AnthropocentrismIs the Focusing primarily or exclusively on human needs and interests BiocentrismIs the Focusing on all life-forms as equally important

Dualism a theory that considers reality to consist of two irreducible elements or modes

EcocentrismA term in ecological political philosophy used to denote a nature-centred, as opposed to human-centred, system of values.

EcologyThe study of systems that includes interrelationships among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ecophilosophy
The study of the interrelationship between an organism's physical functioning and its environment. EthicsThe branch of philosophy that deals with human values

Hedonismthe doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life

HolismThe theory that parts of a whole are in intimate interconnection, such that they cannot exist or be understood independently of the whole

IndividualismA doctrine holding that the interests of the individual should take precedence over the interests of the state or social group

Materialism a doctrine that the only or the highest values or objectives lie in material well-being and in the furtherance of material progress

Metaphysical of or relating to the transcendent or to a reality beyond what is perceptible to the senses

Minimalism a style or technique (as in music, literature, or design) that is characterized by extreme spareness and simplicity

Monismthe view that reality is one unitary organic whole with no independent parts

Ethical extensionisma conventional ethic and argues that it should be applied to a group that has traditionally been excluded from moral consideration, eg animals. Examples: Regan, Singer. Critics argue for a more radical approach

PluralismThe belief that there are multiple perspectives on an issue, each of which contains part of the truth but none of which contain the whole truth. In ethics, moral pluralism is the belief that different moral theories each capture part of truth of the moral life, but none of those theories has the entire answer

NaturalismIn ethics, naturalism is the theory that moral values can be derived from facts about the world and human nature.

You are making a normative judgment if you say that a particular rule, standard or "norm" should be generally adopted. Pragmatic relating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters

RelativismIn ethics, there are two main type of relativism. Descriptive ethical relativism simply claims as a matter of fact that different people have different moral beliefs, but it takes no stand on whether those beliefs are valid or not. Normative ethical relativism claims that each culture’s (or group’s) beliefs are right within that culture, and that it is impossible to validly judge another culture’s values from the outside.

UtilitarianA moral theory that says that what is moral right is whatever produces the greatest overall amount of pleasure and happiness Environmental justiceThe right of every citizen, regardless of age, race, gender, social class, or other factor, to adequate protection from environmental hazards.

Fossil fuelsa fuel (as coal, oil, or natural gas) formed in the earth from plant or animal remains

Renewable energyany naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave,...
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