Diversity Study Notes

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Unit One: Diversity – Study Notes
Classification
Classification
Taxonomy
* Seven taxa (King Philip Came On Family’s Gold Spaceship): 1. Kingdom (animalia)
2. Phylum (chordate)
3. Class (mammalia)
4. Order (primates)
5. Family (hominidae)
6. Genus (homo)
7. Species (sapiens)
* Three domains:
8. Domain Bacteria
9. Domain Archaea
10. Domain Eukarya
* Six Kingdoms:
11. Kingdom Animalia (animals)
12. Kingdom Plantae (plants
13. Kingdom Fungi (fungi)
14. Kingdom Prototista (protists)
15. Kingdom Archaea (archaebacteria)
16. Kingdom Bacteria
* Modern classification no longer relies on morphology (physical differences) as much as Linneaus; instead, we focus on evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) * 5
Binomial Nomenclature
* Bi – two; nomial – name; nomenclature – method of naming * Always italicized (typed) or underlined (written), with first word capitalized * The first word represents the genus while the second represents the species * E.g. Canis familaris (common dog)

* Often of Latin or Greek origin
* Reduces confusion regarding species across language and region barriers * First proposed by Swedish naturalist, Linneaus
* Biological definition of species: group of organisms with comparable features which can mate to produce fertile offspring Characteristics of Living Things
1. Metabolism: refers to all of the chemical reactions occurring within an organism 2. Movement
3. Growth: may be limited, but is ultimately evident in different ways 4. Reproduction: the passing on of hereditary molecules to offspring 5. Response to the environment: vital for the survival of the organism 6. Cellular structure

Cladograms and Primitive/Derived Traits
* Classification is important because:
* We can identify unknown organisms using dichotomous keys *
Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes - Comparison
Structure| Prokaryotes| Eukaryotes|
Genetic Material| DNA in a ring form, with no protein coating, and floats freely in cytoplasm (nucleoid region)| DNA with protein coating in the form of chromosomes/chromotin| Region of Genetic Materal| Floats freely in cytoplasm (nucleoid region)| Bound by a nucleus| Cell division| Divides by fission or budding into two genetically identical cells| Divides by mitosis into two genetically different cells| Sexual recombination| Transfer of genes from donor to recipient (conjugation); also transformation and transduction?| Often a male and female participates in fertilization| Tissue development| none| sometimes|

respiration| Some require oxygen, some do not (anaerobic)| Almost all require oxygen (aerobic)| Energy production| Free floating enzymes in cytoplasm| Mitochondria or chloroplasts| flagella| simple| complex|

Organelles| No compartmentalization within cell| Compartmentalization to enable to formation of many different types of organelles| Ribosomes| 70S ribosomes| 80S ribosomes|
Size| 10 micrometers or less| More than 10 micrometers|

Prokaryotic Cells
* Life form consisting of a single cell
* All life processes, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, elimination of wastes, etc. are carried out by a single cell * Surface area to volume ratio limits the size of the cell, because surface area (membrane) can only move a finite amount of resources in and out of the cell * As the cell grows, the volume typically grows much faster than the surface area * Features include: the cell wall; plasma membrane; flagella; ribosomes; the nucleoid ( a region containing free DNA) * Cell wall contains substance called peptidoglycan

* Provides the prokaryote with structural support and protection * Some cell walls may also have an extra layer on the outside to help the bacteria adhere to surfaces such as teeth * The plasma membrane allows...
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