Developmental Psychology Notes

Topics: Jean Piaget, Developmental psychology, Attachment theory Pages: 8 (1267 words) Published: February 12, 2013
Developmental Psychology
3 major issues:
1. Nature v Nurture (genes v environment)
2.Continuity v Stages (gradual, continuous process v sequence of separate stages) 3.Stability v Change ( do personality trais persist throughout life v or change as we age Early development
Conception (sperm penetrates the egg)
Girls are born with all the immature eggs
Only 1 in 5,000 will mature and be released
Boys start producing sperm cells at puberty
Prenatal development
Zygotes (fertilized eggs) conception to 2 weeks, less than ½ survive more than 2 weeks
After fertilization:
Cells multiply and differentiate (specialize in structure and function)
Attach to the uterine wall forming the placenta (10 days after conception)
Inner cells become the embryo (developing human) 2 to 8 weeks
This becomes the fetus (human from 9 weeks to birth)
By the end of 6 months:
Organs are formed and functional
Responsive to sound (prefers mom’s voice after birth)
Sucks thumb, Kicks, Hiccup
Within days after birth:
Prefers moms smell
Habituation(decrease responding with repeated stimulation)
Simple form of learning
See something look at for 4 seconds then bored
Rotate stimulus increase concentration again
Can discriminated between color, shape, sound

Physical Development (born with most of our brain cells, neural paths continue to develop) Maturation (biological growth that enables orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience)

Stand to walk
Maturation sets the course of development, experience adjusts, must be physiologically ready Remember things best after 4 years, usually do not remember before 3 years Memories are made though

Hide button in box at 11 months old, remember 1 day later, will imitate Motor Development
Develops top down (hand in mouth then foot in mouth)
Develops in to out (arms, hand then fingers)
Muscles and nervous systems need to mature for more complicated skills
Development of cerebellum = readiness to walk
Muscles and nervous system need to mature for bladder and bowel control
Genes make a difference in maturation (twins sit and stand on the same day) Cognitive development
Schema- the framework or the way we organize and interpret our experiences
Kids are active thinkers and try to make sense of our world (ask Why)
Assimilate- see how they fit into existing schema (all four legged animals – doggies)
Accommodate – modify schema ( dog = dog, cat = cat)
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor –(birth to 2 years)
Uses senses to experience the world
Object permanence
Stranger anxiety
Preoperational (2-6)
Uses words, no logic, say what is on their mind
Egocentric, Pretend play, language development, Theory of mind starts at the end of the stage
Concrete Operational (7-11)
Logic, arithmetic operations
Formal Operations (12 and up)
Solves hypothetical
Abstract logic moral reasoning
Lev Vygotsky
Culture – determines what and how you learn, your beliefs, etc.
3 stages of Language Development
Social (0-3 years) control others behavior
Egocentric (3-7 years) bridge between external and internal conversations
Inner Speech (7 and up)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Each zone = challenge (not to easy, not to hard)
Master all tasks then move on to the next level
Parents/teachers/older siblings facilitate learning
Scaffolding – must master to move to next zone
Attachmentan intense mutual infant-parental bond
Body contact (comfort and nourishment) Harlow’s studies
Imprinting – humans do not imprint
Konrad Lorenz geese imprinting studies
Adoptive parents can catch up
Familiarity = contentment (same food, books, clothes)
Responsive Parenting (Morelli Strange Situation Test)
Secure attachment teaches the world is predictable, more...
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