a.Prices of optical drives suddenly increase
The production cost has increased so the supply decreases and eventually the price go up. The supply curve shifts to the left.
b.A new market-standard operating system is released to the market but costs at least 50% higher than the previous edition
This issue is considered another production cost so the supply curve shifts to the left. The supply decreases and price goes up.
c.News spread that local laptops were contaminated with melamine
Demand decreases because people buy less due to the news so the demand curve shifts to the left and the Q and P both decrease.
d.Video chatting and internet-on-the-go become fad
New technology makes people buy more of the product so demand increases and as a consequence the demand curve shifts to the right and price and quantity both increases.
a.China laptop manufacturers were permitted to enter the Malaysian market
Cheaper products attract consumers, so the demand for our product decreases. The shift in the demand curve goes to left and the P and Q both decreases.
b.Average desktop computer prices have plunged to all-time lows
If desktop computers become cheaper the demand for laptops decreases so the demand curve shifts to left and eventually the P and Q decrease.
c.New taxes were imposed to laptops sales (per unit tax)