Death and Dying

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1.Define the Concept of loss, grief, mourning and bereavement. •Loss is defined as: “occurs when a valued person, object or situation is changed or made inaccessible so that its value is diminished or removed”. Loss is the experience and feeling you get when dying. It has been felt by the individual dying as well as their family members and their significant others when their loved one is being taken away from them. •Grief is the emotional/behavioral reaction to loss. It occurs with loss caused by separation as well as loss caused by death. It is a very normal process, but it normally takes several months to work through. Grief could come in the form of denial, emotional numbing, rage, anger, anxiety, sadness, fear, confusion, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite. This process varies from person to person. •Mourning is “the period of acceptance of loss and grief during which the person learns to deal with the loss”. It is said to be very therapeutic because it is grief that is publically exposed. This includes: symbols and ceremonies such as a funeral or final celebration of a loved one’s life, memorial services, mourning dress, etc. Mourning is influenced by cultural customs, rituals and society’s rules of coping with loss. It is characterized by a return to more normal living habits, unlike a different type of grieving. •Bereavement is “the state of grieving during which a person goes through a grief reaction”. This is experienced by both the patient and the family. The time a person spends in bereavement depends on how attached the person was to the person who died and how much time was spent together before the death occurs. This can affect a person physically as well as emotionally. 2.List and describe the Kubler-Ross stages of dying and grief. •This Kubler-Ross model is also called the Five Stages of Grief. The stages occur in no particular order. The stages are as follows: •Denial- “I feel fine” or “This can’t be happening, not to me” are some examples of statements made by a person in this stage. This is usually just a temporary defense. Some people can become stuck in this stage. •Anger- “Why me? It’s not fair!” or “How can this happen to me?” “Who is to blame?”; In this stage, the person recognizes that denial cannot continue. People are normally angry with those who are close to them. It is important to remain nonjudgmental when dealing with a person experiencing anger from grief. •Bargaining- “I’ll do anything for a few more years.” This stage involves hope that the individual can somehow postpone or delay death. This rarely provides a sustainable solution. •Depression- “I’m so sad, why bother with anything?” or “I miss my loved one, why go on?” In this stage the certainty of death is realized and acceptance of the situation occurs. •Acceptance- “It’s going to be okay.” A person comes to terms with mortality. This stage occurs varyingly according to the person’s situation. 3.Define end-of-life care, hospice care, and palliative care. •End-of-life care is medical care given specifically to individuals in the final hours or days of their lives. This care ensures that the patient is comfortable. This includes assistance in pain control and the treatment of other symptoms of death that the patient might have including constipation and shortness of breath. The patients family is also treated during this time with that such as counseling. •Hospice care is a type of care in which care is provided for people with a limited life expectancy. This care assists to relieve suffering and pain which allows patients to pass peacefully and comfortably, most of the time in the patient’s own home. This care does not speed up nor does it slow down the process of dying. Hospice care can be given in either a home or an institutional setting. This care begins when the team works together to come up with a Plan of Care to provide services that will make better the quality of life and support for the...
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