Course. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (522)
Course Code 522
Name of Student ZAFFAR ABBAS
Roll No AH505861
Semester spring 2012
Discuss the current rate of inflation in Pakistan and its impact upon business sector.
Topic: Discuss the current rate of inflation in Pakistan and its impact upon business sector
Inflation means a rise in prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. Inflation is caused by some demand side factors (Increase in money supply, Increase in income, Black money spending, Expansion of the Private Sector, Increasing Public Expenditures) and some Supply side factors (Shortage of factors of production, Industrial Disputes, Increase in exports (excess exports), Global factors, Neglecting the production of consumer goods). EFFECTS OF INFLATION
Inflation effects the different sectors of the economy (Effects on the distribution of income and wealth, Effects on production, Effects on the Government, Effects on the Balance of Payment, Effects on Monetary Policy, Effects on Social Sector, Effects on Political environment) and different classes of the people (Debtors & Creditors, Salaried Class, Wages earners, Fixed income group, Investors and shareholders, Businessmen, Agriculturists). CAUSES OF INLATION
There are many causes for inflation, depending on a number of factors. For example, inflation can happen when governments print an excess of money to deal with a crisis. When any extra money is created, it will increase some societal group’s buying power. All sectors in the economy try to buy more than the economy can produce. Shortages are then created and merchants lose business. In the end, the price level rises. Another common reason of inflation is a rise in production costs, which leads to an increase in the price of the final product. For example, if raw materials increase in price, this leads to the cost of production increasing, this in turn leads to the company increasing prices to maintain their profits. Inflation can also be caused by federal taxes put on consumer products. As the taxes rise, suppliers often pass on the burden to the consumer. TYPES OF INFLATION
There are four main types of inflation with four different causes. The term inflation is usually used to indicate a rise in the general price level , though one can speak of inflationary movements in any single price or group of prices.
1.DEMAND-PULL OR EXCESS DEMAND INFLATION
The most important inflation is called demand-pull or excess demand inflation. It occurs when the total demand for goods and services in an economy exceeds the available supply, so the prices for them rise in a market economy. Historically this has been the most common type and at times the most serious. Every war produces this type of inflation because demand for war materials and manpower grows rapidly without comparable shrinkage elsewhere. Other types of inflation occur more readily in conjunction with demand-pull inflation.
Another type of inflation is called cost-push inflation. The name suggests the cause--costs of production rise, for one reason or another, and force up the prices of finished goods and services. Often a rise in wages in excess of any gains in labor productivity is what raises unit costs of production and thus raises prices. This is less common than demand-pull, but can occur independently as well as in conjunction with it.
3.PRICING POWER INFLATION
A third type of inflation could be called pricing power inflation, but is more frequently called administered price inflation. It occurs whenever businesses in general decide to boost their prices to increase their profit margins. This does not occur normally in recessions but when the economy is booming and sales are strong. It might be called...