Culinary Final Study Guide

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Culinary Exam Review
• Chemical
o Toxic metals (lead, copper, brass, zinc)
o Chemicals (cleaning products, polish, lubricants, sanitizers) o Pesricides
• Physical: glass, metal, nail polish
• Biological
o Seafood toxins
o Plant toxins
o Fungal toxins
o Pathogens
o Bacteria
o Parasites
o Viruses

Pathogens: Microorganisms that cause illnesses (virus, bacteria, parasites and fungi)

Pathogens need the following things to grow (FAT TOM):

1. Food: meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs
2. Acidity: pathogens grow best in food with little or no acid (pH between 4.6-7.5) 3. Temperature: pathogens grow well in the TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE (41-135 degrees F) 4. Time: After 4 hours, pathogens will grow to a level high enough to cause illness. • LAG PHASE: resting time when very little growth occurs • LOG PHASE: accelerated growth of bacteria

• STATIONARY PHASE: lasts until bacteria begin to crowd others within their colony, creating competition for food, space and moisture, which allow bacteria to grow • DECLINE: bacteria die at an accelerated rate

5. Oxygen: Some need it and others don’t.
6. Moisture: Pathogens require moisture. Amount available for this growth is called the water activity level (0.0-1.0). Need a water activity of 0.85 to grow.

**In order to prevent Foodborne illnesses, must control time and temperature**

Intoxications and Infections
• Intoxication: when bacteria produces toxins, a by-product of their life processes o Odorless and tasteless
o Bacteria is not harmless, but the toxins poison the consumer o Even cooking with high temperatures can leave behind toxins o Proper food-handling techniques are required
• Infection: occurs when live pathogenic bacteria are ingested o Bacteria lives in consumer’s intestinal tract and causes illness o Can be destroyed by cooking foods at 165 or higher
• Toxin-mediated infection: establish colonies in human intestinal tracts and produce toxins there o Has characteristics of both intoxication and infection o Particularly harmful to those with weak immune systems (children, elderly)

• Leading Cause in Foodborne illnesses
• They can survive refrigeration and freezing
• They grow inside the person
• Can contaminate both food and water
• Must minimize bare-hand contact with food in order to prevent • Can be killed at +176 degrees
• Not affected pH, oxygen content and water activity
• Need a HOST cell

• Leading cause of food borne illness
• Controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone • Some produce toxins in food
• Some can be beneficial for
o Ingesting food and decomposing garbage
o Making cheese and yogurt
o PUTREFACTIVES: bacteria that spoils food, but does not make it unfit for consumption

• Bacteria that changes into a different form to prevent dying. • Commonly found in soil, also in meat products
• Resists heat

• Cannot grow in food-must be in the meat of another animal • Use many animal as hosts
• Can be found in the feces of people and animals
• Contaminate food and water

• Spoil food-found in air, soil, plants, water and some food • Mold and yeast are examples

• Spoil food and sometimes cause illness
• Produce toxins
• Grow in almost any condition (best in acidic food with low water activity) • Colder temps slow growth

Chapter #3

Toxic Metals
• Lead-found in pewter
• Cooper-cookware
• Zinc-metal found in galvanized items
• If food is stored or prepared with these metals, then it can result in toxic-metal poisoning

Food Service Chemicals:
• Store chemicals away from food, utensils and equipment
• Follow manufacture’s directions when using chemicals
• Label all containers
• Use only...
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